Analysis of deposited layers with deuterium and impurity elements on samples from the divertor of JET with ITER-like wall

P. Ström (Corresponding Author), P. Petersson, M. Rubel, E. Fortuna-Zaleśna, A. Widdowson, G. Sergienko, Leena Aho-Mantila, Markus Airila, Antti Hakola, Seppo Koivuranta, Jari Likonen, Antti Salmi, Paula Siren, Tuomas Tala, JET Contributors

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

    5 Citations (Scopus)


    Inconel-600 blocks and stainless steel covers for quartz microbalance crystals from remote corners in the JET-ILW divertor were studied with time-of-flight elastic recoil detection analysis and nuclear reaction analysis to obtain information about the areal densities and depth profiles of elements present in deposited material layers. Surface morphology and the composition of dust particles were examined with scanning electron microscopy and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. The analysed components were present in JET during three ITER-like wall campaigns between 2010 and 2017. Deposited layers had a stratified structure, primarily made up of beryllium, carbon and oxygen with varying atomic fractions of deuterium, up to more than 20%. The range of carbon transport from the ribs of the divertor carrier was limited to a few centimeters, and carbon/deuterium co-deposition was indicated on the Inconel blocks. High atomic fractions of deuterium were also found in almost carbon-free layers on the quartz microbalance covers. Layer thicknesses up to more than 1 μm were indicated, but typical values were on the order of a few hundred nm. Chromium, iron and nickel fractions were less than or around 1% at layer surfaces while increasing close to the layer-substrate interface. The tungsten fraction depended on the proximity of the plasma strike point to the divertor corners. Particles of tungsten, molybdenum and copper with sizes less than or around 1 μm were found. Nitrogen, argon and neon were present after plasma edge cooling and disruption mitigation. Oxygen-18 was found on component surfaces after injection, indicating in-vessel oxidation. Compensation of elastic recoil detection data for detection efficiency and ion-induced release of deuterium during the measurement gave quantitative agreement with nuclear reaction analysis, which strengthens the validity of the results.
    Original languageEnglish
    Pages (from-to)202-213
    JournalJournal of Nuclear Materials
    Publication statusPublished - 1 Apr 2019
    MoE publication typeA1 Journal article-refereed


    • Fusion
    • NRA
    • Plasma-wall interactions
    • SEM
    • ToF-ERDA
    • Tokamak


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