Raw cotton and flax fibers and fabrics contain noncellulosic components such as waxes, pectins, proteins, and hemicelluloses, and major parts of these components are located on the outer surfaces of the fibers. In this work, the surface chemistry of cotton and linen fabrics is analyzed with Electron Spectroscopy for Chemical Analysis (ESCA), with special emphasis on the location of the waxes and lignin in the fabric surfaces.
Buchert, J., Pere, J., Johansson, L-S., & Campbell, J. M. (2001). Analysis of the surface chemistry of linen and cotton fabrics. Textile Reseach Journal, 71(7), 626-629. https://doi.org/10.1177/004051750107100710