Analysis of thermal radiation in ion traps for optical frequency standards

M. Doležal, P. Balling, P. B.R. Nisbet-Jones, S. A. King, J. M. Jones, H. A. Klein, P. Gill, T. Lindvall, A. E. Wallin, M. Merimaa, C. Tamm, C. Sanner, N. Huntemann, N. Scharnhorst, I. D. Leroux, P. O. Schmidt, T. Burgermeister, T. E. Mehlstäubler, E. Peik

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

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Abstract

In many of the high-precision optical frequency standards with trapped atoms or ions that are under development to date, the ac Stark shift induced by thermal radiation leads to a major contribution to the systematic uncertainty. We present an analysis of the inhomogeneous thermal environment experienced by ions in various types of ion traps. Finite element models which allow the determination of the temperature of the trap structure and the temperature of the radiation were developed for five ion trap designs, including operational traps at PTB and NPL and further optimized designs. Models were refined based on comparison with infrared camera measurement until an agreement of better than 10% of the measured temperature rise at critical test points was reached. The effective temperature rises of the radiation seen by the ion range from 0.8 K to 2.1 K at standard working conditions. The corresponding fractional frequency shift uncertainties resulting from the uncertainty in temperature are in the 10-18 range for optical clocks based on the Sr+ and Yb+ E2 transitions, and even lower for Yb+ E3, In+ and Al+. Issues critical for heating of the trap structure and its predictability were identified and design recommendations developed.

Original languageEnglish
Article number842
Pages (from-to)842-856
JournalMetrologia
Volume52
Issue number6
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 12 Nov 2015
MoE publication typeA1 Journal article-refereed

Fingerprint

Frequency standards
Heat radiation
Ions
Temperature
Radiation
Clocks
Cameras
Infrared radiation
Heating
Atoms
Uncertainty

Keywords

  • blackbody radiation shift
  • ion clocks
  • ion traps
  • optical atomic clocks
  • thermal and high frequency finite element method modelling

Cite this

Doležal, M., Balling, P., Nisbet-Jones, P. B. R., King, S. A., Jones, J. M., Klein, H. A., ... Peik, E. (2015). Analysis of thermal radiation in ion traps for optical frequency standards. Metrologia, 52(6), 842-856. [842]. https://doi.org/10.1088/0026-1394/52/6/842
Doležal, M. ; Balling, P. ; Nisbet-Jones, P. B.R. ; King, S. A. ; Jones, J. M. ; Klein, H. A. ; Gill, P. ; Lindvall, T. ; Wallin, A. E. ; Merimaa, M. ; Tamm, C. ; Sanner, C. ; Huntemann, N. ; Scharnhorst, N. ; Leroux, I. D. ; Schmidt, P. O. ; Burgermeister, T. ; Mehlstäubler, T. E. ; Peik, E. / Analysis of thermal radiation in ion traps for optical frequency standards. In: Metrologia. 2015 ; Vol. 52, No. 6. pp. 842-856.
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abstract = "In many of the high-precision optical frequency standards with trapped atoms or ions that are under development to date, the ac Stark shift induced by thermal radiation leads to a major contribution to the systematic uncertainty. We present an analysis of the inhomogeneous thermal environment experienced by ions in various types of ion traps. Finite element models which allow the determination of the temperature of the trap structure and the temperature of the radiation were developed for five ion trap designs, including operational traps at PTB and NPL and further optimized designs. Models were refined based on comparison with infrared camera measurement until an agreement of better than 10{\%} of the measured temperature rise at critical test points was reached. The effective temperature rises of the radiation seen by the ion range from 0.8 K to 2.1 K at standard working conditions. The corresponding fractional frequency shift uncertainties resulting from the uncertainty in temperature are in the 10-18 range for optical clocks based on the Sr+ and Yb+ E2 transitions, and even lower for Yb+ E3, In+ and Al+. Issues critical for heating of the trap structure and its predictability were identified and design recommendations developed.",
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Doležal, M, Balling, P, Nisbet-Jones, PBR, King, SA, Jones, JM, Klein, HA, Gill, P, Lindvall, T, Wallin, AE, Merimaa, M, Tamm, C, Sanner, C, Huntemann, N, Scharnhorst, N, Leroux, ID, Schmidt, PO, Burgermeister, T, Mehlstäubler, TE & Peik, E 2015, 'Analysis of thermal radiation in ion traps for optical frequency standards', Metrologia, vol. 52, no. 6, 842, pp. 842-856. https://doi.org/10.1088/0026-1394/52/6/842

Analysis of thermal radiation in ion traps for optical frequency standards. / Doležal, M.; Balling, P.; Nisbet-Jones, P. B.R.; King, S. A.; Jones, J. M.; Klein, H. A.; Gill, P.; Lindvall, T.; Wallin, A. E.; Merimaa, M.; Tamm, C.; Sanner, C.; Huntemann, N.; Scharnhorst, N.; Leroux, I. D.; Schmidt, P. O.; Burgermeister, T.; Mehlstäubler, T. E.; Peik, E.

In: Metrologia, Vol. 52, No. 6, 842, 12.11.2015, p. 842-856.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

TY - JOUR

T1 - Analysis of thermal radiation in ion traps for optical frequency standards

AU - Doležal, M.

AU - Balling, P.

AU - Nisbet-Jones, P. B.R.

AU - King, S. A.

AU - Jones, J. M.

AU - Klein, H. A.

AU - Gill, P.

AU - Lindvall, T.

AU - Wallin, A. E.

AU - Merimaa, M.

AU - Tamm, C.

AU - Sanner, C.

AU - Huntemann, N.

AU - Scharnhorst, N.

AU - Leroux, I. D.

AU - Schmidt, P. O.

AU - Burgermeister, T.

AU - Mehlstäubler, T. E.

AU - Peik, E.

N1 - Project code: 104545

PY - 2015/11/12

Y1 - 2015/11/12

N2 - In many of the high-precision optical frequency standards with trapped atoms or ions that are under development to date, the ac Stark shift induced by thermal radiation leads to a major contribution to the systematic uncertainty. We present an analysis of the inhomogeneous thermal environment experienced by ions in various types of ion traps. Finite element models which allow the determination of the temperature of the trap structure and the temperature of the radiation were developed for five ion trap designs, including operational traps at PTB and NPL and further optimized designs. Models were refined based on comparison with infrared camera measurement until an agreement of better than 10% of the measured temperature rise at critical test points was reached. The effective temperature rises of the radiation seen by the ion range from 0.8 K to 2.1 K at standard working conditions. The corresponding fractional frequency shift uncertainties resulting from the uncertainty in temperature are in the 10-18 range for optical clocks based on the Sr+ and Yb+ E2 transitions, and even lower for Yb+ E3, In+ and Al+. Issues critical for heating of the trap structure and its predictability were identified and design recommendations developed.

AB - In many of the high-precision optical frequency standards with trapped atoms or ions that are under development to date, the ac Stark shift induced by thermal radiation leads to a major contribution to the systematic uncertainty. We present an analysis of the inhomogeneous thermal environment experienced by ions in various types of ion traps. Finite element models which allow the determination of the temperature of the trap structure and the temperature of the radiation were developed for five ion trap designs, including operational traps at PTB and NPL and further optimized designs. Models were refined based on comparison with infrared camera measurement until an agreement of better than 10% of the measured temperature rise at critical test points was reached. The effective temperature rises of the radiation seen by the ion range from 0.8 K to 2.1 K at standard working conditions. The corresponding fractional frequency shift uncertainties resulting from the uncertainty in temperature are in the 10-18 range for optical clocks based on the Sr+ and Yb+ E2 transitions, and even lower for Yb+ E3, In+ and Al+. Issues critical for heating of the trap structure and its predictability were identified and design recommendations developed.

KW - blackbody radiation shift

KW - ion clocks

KW - ion traps

KW - optical atomic clocks

KW - thermal and high frequency finite element method modelling

U2 - 10.1088/0026-1394/52/6/842

DO - 10.1088/0026-1394/52/6/842

M3 - Article

VL - 52

SP - 842

EP - 856

JO - Metrologia

JF - Metrologia

SN - 0026-1394

IS - 6

M1 - 842

ER -

Doležal M, Balling P, Nisbet-Jones PBR, King SA, Jones JM, Klein HA et al. Analysis of thermal radiation in ion traps for optical frequency standards. Metrologia. 2015 Nov 12;52(6):842-856. 842. https://doi.org/10.1088/0026-1394/52/6/842