Angular power distribution and mean effective gain of mobile antenna in different propagation environments

Kimmo Kalliola, Kati Sulonen, Heikki Laitinen, Outi Kivekäs, Joonas Krogerus, Pertti Vainikainen

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

181 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

We measured the elevation angle distribution and cross-polarization power ratio of the incident power at a mobile station in different radio propagation environments at 2.15 GHz frequency. A novel measurement technique was utilized, based on a wideband channel sounder and a spherical dual-polarized antenna array at the receiver.
Data were collected over 9 km of continuous measurement routes, both indoor and outdoor. Our results show that in non-line-of-sight situations, the power distribution in elevation has a shape of a double-sided exponential function, with different slopes on the negative and positive sides of the peak.
The slopes and the peak elevation angle depend on the environment and base-station antenna height. The cross-polarization power ratio varied within 6.6 and 11.4 dB, being lowest for indoor and highest for urban microcell environments. We applied the experimental data for analysis of the mean effective gain (MEG) of several mobile handset antenna configurations, with and without the user's head.
The obtained MEG values varied from approximately -5 dBi in free space to less than -11 dBi beside the head model. These values are considerably lower than what is typically used in system specifications. The result shows that considering only the maximum gain or total efficiency of the antenna is not enough to describe its performance in practical operating conditions. For most antennas, the environment type has little effect on the MEG, but clear differences exist between antennas.
The effect of the user's head on the MEG depends on the antenna type and on which side of the head the user holds the handset.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)823-838
JournalIEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology
Volume51
Issue number5
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2002
MoE publication typeA1 Journal article-refereed

Fingerprint

Mobile antennas
Power Mean
Power Distribution
Antenna
Propagation
Antennas
Slope
Polarization
Angle
Radio transmission
Antenna Arrays
Exponential functions
Measurement Techniques
Free Space
Antenna arrays
Base stations
Lowest
Receiver
Acoustic waves
Experimental Data

Keywords

  • angular power distribution
  • mean effective gain
  • mobile antenna
  • polarization
  • radio channel sounding

Cite this

Kalliola, Kimmo ; Sulonen, Kati ; Laitinen, Heikki ; Kivekäs, Outi ; Krogerus, Joonas ; Vainikainen, Pertti. / Angular power distribution and mean effective gain of mobile antenna in different propagation environments. In: IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology. 2002 ; Vol. 51, No. 5. pp. 823-838.
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abstract = "We measured the elevation angle distribution and cross-polarization power ratio of the incident power at a mobile station in different radio propagation environments at 2.15 GHz frequency. A novel measurement technique was utilized, based on a wideband channel sounder and a spherical dual-polarized antenna array at the receiver. Data were collected over 9 km of continuous measurement routes, both indoor and outdoor. Our results show that in non-line-of-sight situations, the power distribution in elevation has a shape of a double-sided exponential function, with different slopes on the negative and positive sides of the peak. The slopes and the peak elevation angle depend on the environment and base-station antenna height. The cross-polarization power ratio varied within 6.6 and 11.4 dB, being lowest for indoor and highest for urban microcell environments. We applied the experimental data for analysis of the mean effective gain (MEG) of several mobile handset antenna configurations, with and without the user's head. The obtained MEG values varied from approximately -5 dBi in free space to less than -11 dBi beside the head model. These values are considerably lower than what is typically used in system specifications. The result shows that considering only the maximum gain or total efficiency of the antenna is not enough to describe its performance in practical operating conditions. For most antennas, the environment type has little effect on the MEG, but clear differences exist between antennas. The effect of the user's head on the MEG depends on the antenna type and on which side of the head the user holds the handset.",
keywords = "angular power distribution, mean effective gain, mobile antenna, polarization, radio channel sounding",
author = "Kimmo Kalliola and Kati Sulonen and Heikki Laitinen and Outi Kivek{\"a}s and Joonas Krogerus and Pertti Vainikainen",
note = "Project code: T7SU00233",
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Angular power distribution and mean effective gain of mobile antenna in different propagation environments. / Kalliola, Kimmo; Sulonen, Kati; Laitinen, Heikki; Kivekäs, Outi; Krogerus, Joonas; Vainikainen, Pertti.

In: IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology, Vol. 51, No. 5, 2002, p. 823-838.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

TY - JOUR

T1 - Angular power distribution and mean effective gain of mobile antenna in different propagation environments

AU - Kalliola, Kimmo

AU - Sulonen, Kati

AU - Laitinen, Heikki

AU - Kivekäs, Outi

AU - Krogerus, Joonas

AU - Vainikainen, Pertti

N1 - Project code: T7SU00233

PY - 2002

Y1 - 2002

N2 - We measured the elevation angle distribution and cross-polarization power ratio of the incident power at a mobile station in different radio propagation environments at 2.15 GHz frequency. A novel measurement technique was utilized, based on a wideband channel sounder and a spherical dual-polarized antenna array at the receiver. Data were collected over 9 km of continuous measurement routes, both indoor and outdoor. Our results show that in non-line-of-sight situations, the power distribution in elevation has a shape of a double-sided exponential function, with different slopes on the negative and positive sides of the peak. The slopes and the peak elevation angle depend on the environment and base-station antenna height. The cross-polarization power ratio varied within 6.6 and 11.4 dB, being lowest for indoor and highest for urban microcell environments. We applied the experimental data for analysis of the mean effective gain (MEG) of several mobile handset antenna configurations, with and without the user's head. The obtained MEG values varied from approximately -5 dBi in free space to less than -11 dBi beside the head model. These values are considerably lower than what is typically used in system specifications. The result shows that considering only the maximum gain or total efficiency of the antenna is not enough to describe its performance in practical operating conditions. For most antennas, the environment type has little effect on the MEG, but clear differences exist between antennas. The effect of the user's head on the MEG depends on the antenna type and on which side of the head the user holds the handset.

AB - We measured the elevation angle distribution and cross-polarization power ratio of the incident power at a mobile station in different radio propagation environments at 2.15 GHz frequency. A novel measurement technique was utilized, based on a wideband channel sounder and a spherical dual-polarized antenna array at the receiver. Data were collected over 9 km of continuous measurement routes, both indoor and outdoor. Our results show that in non-line-of-sight situations, the power distribution in elevation has a shape of a double-sided exponential function, with different slopes on the negative and positive sides of the peak. The slopes and the peak elevation angle depend on the environment and base-station antenna height. The cross-polarization power ratio varied within 6.6 and 11.4 dB, being lowest for indoor and highest for urban microcell environments. We applied the experimental data for analysis of the mean effective gain (MEG) of several mobile handset antenna configurations, with and without the user's head. The obtained MEG values varied from approximately -5 dBi in free space to less than -11 dBi beside the head model. These values are considerably lower than what is typically used in system specifications. The result shows that considering only the maximum gain or total efficiency of the antenna is not enough to describe its performance in practical operating conditions. For most antennas, the environment type has little effect on the MEG, but clear differences exist between antennas. The effect of the user's head on the MEG depends on the antenna type and on which side of the head the user holds the handset.

KW - angular power distribution

KW - mean effective gain

KW - mobile antenna

KW - polarization

KW - radio channel sounding

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DO - 10.1109/TVT.2002.800639

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JO - IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology

JF - IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology

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ER -