Anode ink formulation for a fully printed flexible fuel cell stack

Liisa Hakola (Corresponding Author), Andres Parra Puerto, Anu Vaari, Tiina Maaninen, Anthony Kucernak, Saara Viik, Maria Smolander

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

7 Citations (Scopus)
158 Downloads (Pure)


In fuel cells the underlying reactions take place at the catalyst layers composed of materials favoring the desired electrochemical reactions. This paper introduces a formulation process for a catalyst inkjet ink used as an anode for a fully printed flexible fuel cell stack. The optimal ink formulation was 2.5 wt% of carbon-platinum-ruthenium mixture with 0.5% Nafion concentration in a diacetone alcohol solvent vehicle. The best jetting performance was achieved when 1 wt% binder was included in the ink formulation. Anodes with resistivity of approximately 0.1 Ω cm were inkjet printed, which is close to the commercial anode resistivity of 0.05 Ω cm. The anodes were used in fuel cell stacks that were prepared by utilizing only printing methods. The best five-cell-air-breathing stack showed an open circuit potential under H2/air conditions of 3.4 V. The peak power of this stack was 120 µW cm-2 at 1.75 V, with a resistance obtained from potentiostatic impedance analysis of 295 Ohm cm2. The printed electrodes showed a performance suitable for low-performance solutions, such as powering single-use sensors.

Original languageEnglish
Article number025002
JournalFlexible and Printed Electronics
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - Jun 2020
MoE publication typeA1 Journal article-refereed


  • fuel cell
  • anode
  • stack
  • catalyst
  • print
  • inkjet
  • ink
  • formulation
  • flexible


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