Application of a Hybrid Modeling Method for Generating Synthetic Ground Motions in Fennoscandia, Northern Europe

Vilho Jussila, Billy Fälth, Päivi Mäntyniemi, Peter H. Voss, Björn Lund, Ludovic Fülöp (Corresponding Author)

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

2 Citations (Scopus)


We present a modeling technique for generating synthetic ground motions, aimed at earthquakes of design significance for critical structures and ground motions at distances corresponding to the engineering near field, in which real data are often missing. We use dynamic modeling based on the finite-difference approach to simulate the rupture process within a fault, followed by kinematic modeling to generate the ground motions. The earthquake source ruptures were modeled using the 3D distinct element code (Itasca, 2013). We then used the complete synthetic program by Spudich and Xu (2002) to simulate the propagation of seismic waves and to obtain synthetic ground motions. In this work, we demonstrate the method covering the frequency ranges of engineering interests up to 25 Hz and quantify the differences in ground motion generated. We compare the synthetic ground motions for distances up to 30 km with a ground-motion prediction equation, which synthesizes the expected ground motion and its randomness based on observa-tions. The synthetic ground motions can be used to supplement observations in the near field for seismic hazard analysis. We demonstrate the hybrid approach to one critical site in the Fennoscandian Shield, northern Europe.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)2507-2526
JournalBulletin of the Seismological Society of America
Issue number5
Publication statusPublished - 1 Oct 2021
MoE publication typeA1 Journal article-refereed


The modeling work summarized here was carried out within the projects Modelling as a Tool to Augment Ground Motion Data in Regions of Diffuse Seismicity (AddGROUND) Contract Number NKS-R(16)113/1 and Synthetic Ground Motions to Support the Fennoscandian GMPEs (SYNTAGMA) Contract NKS-R(18)126/5, of NKS Nordic Nuclear Safety Research. The comparisons to FennoG16 were partly carried out within the Academy of Finland’s SEISMIC RISK–Mitigation of Induced Seismic Risk in Urban Environments project (Funding Decision Numbers 337913, 338075, and 339670).


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