Architecture for Enabling Edge Inference via Model Transfer from Cloud Domain in a Kubernetes Environment

Pekka Pääkkönen (Corresponding Author), Daniel Pakkala, Jussi Kiljander, Roope Sarala

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

10 Citations (Scopus)
131 Downloads (Pure)


The current approaches for energy consumption optimisation in buildings are mainly reactive or focus on scheduling of daily/weekly operation modes in heating. Machine Learning (ML)-based advanced control methods have been demonstrated to improve energy efficiency when compared to these traditional methods. However, placing of ML-based models close to the buildings is not straightforward. Firstly, edge-devices typically have lower capabilities in terms of processing power, memory, and storage, which may limit execution of ML-based inference at the edge. Secondly, associated building information should be kept private. Thirdly, network access may be limited for serving a large number of edge devices. The contribution of this paper is an architecture, which enables training of ML-based models for energy consumption prediction in private cloud domain, and transfer of the models to edge nodes for prediction in Kubernetes environment. Additionally, predictors at the edge nodes can be automatically updated without interrupting operation. Performance results with sensor-based devices (Raspberry Pi 4 and Jetson Nano) indicated that a satisfactory prediction latency (~7–9 s) can be achieved within the research context. However, model switching led to an increase in prediction latency (~9–13 s). Partial evaluation of a Reference Architecture for edge computing systems, which was used as a starting point for architecture design, may be considered as an additional contribution of the paper.
Original languageEnglish
Article number5
Pages (from-to)1-24
Number of pages24
JournalFuture Internet
Issue number1
Early online date29 Dec 2020
Publication statusPublished - Jan 2021
MoE publication typeA1 Journal article-refereed


  • Rancher
  • k3s
  • Docker
  • reference architecture
  • ML


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