Ash forming elements in plastics and rubbers

Matti Ranta-Korpi, Pasi Vainikka, Jukka Konttinen, Antti Saarimaa, Milena Rodriguez

Research output: Book/ReportReportProfessional

Abstract

Metals, alkali metals and halogens found in solid fuels cause various operational problems in boilers and furnaces: emissions, ash melting, ash deposition and corrosion. The role of ash-forming elements found in plastics have received little attention in the literature. All commercial plastics and rubbers, particularly polyvinyl chloride (PVC), polyethylene (PE), polypropylene (PP), polyethylene terephthalate (PET), polybutylene terephthalate (PBT), polystyrene (PS) and polyurethane (PU) contain additives serving various functions. These additives may be utilized as catalysts, curing agents for rubbers, stabilizers, fillers, pigments and flame retardants. In many cases these compounds contain metal, halogen, sulfur and alkaline earth metal (i.e. magnesium, calcium and barium) atoms bonded to the structures of additive compounds. The usage levels of the additive compounds may be several percent of the weight of the polymer, leading to high elemental concentrations of metal, halogen, sulfur and alkaline earth metal. In this review paper, metals, halogens, sulfur and earth alkaline metal containing polymer additives and polymers most widely used are introduced separately. Starting from the evaluation of the chemical formula of the additive compound, going through its typical targets of use, and also estimating the concentration range of the elemental sulfur/metal/halogen present in the final polymer. The element concentrations of metal, halogen, sulfur and alkaline earth metal compounds vary significantly, ranging from several hundreds of mg/kg units up to several thousands of mg/kg in the polymer, depending on the application.
Original languageEnglish
Place of PublicationEspoo
PublisherVTT Technical Research Centre of Finland
Number of pages131
ISBN (Electronic)978-951-38-8158-0
ISBN (Print)978-951-38-8157-3
Publication statusPublished - 2014
MoE publication typeNot Eligible

Publication series

NameVTT Technology
PublisherVTT
No.186
ISSN (Print)2242-1211
ISSN (Electronic)2242-122X

Fingerprint

Ashes
Halogens
Rubber
Chemical elements
Sulfur
Alkaline Earth Metals
Plastics
Polymers
Metals
Alkaline earth metal compounds
Flame Retardants
Alkali Metals
Stabilizers (agents)
Polyethylene Terephthalates
Polyurethanes
Polypropylenes
Polystyrenes
Polyethylene
Barium
Polyvinyl Chloride

Keywords

  • municipal solid waste
  • plastic solid waste
  • additives
  • halogens
  • sulfur
  • alkaline earth metals
  • yhdyskuntajäte
  • muovijäte
  • halogeenit
  • rikki
  • alkali maa metallit

Cite this

Ranta-Korpi, M., Vainikka, P., Konttinen, J., Saarimaa, A., & Rodriguez, M. (2014). Ash forming elements in plastics and rubbers. Espoo: VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland. VTT Technology, No. 186
Ranta-Korpi, Matti ; Vainikka, Pasi ; Konttinen, Jukka ; Saarimaa, Antti ; Rodriguez, Milena. / Ash forming elements in plastics and rubbers. Espoo : VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, 2014. 131 p. (VTT Technology; No. 186).
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Ranta-Korpi, M, Vainikka, P, Konttinen, J, Saarimaa, A & Rodriguez, M 2014, Ash forming elements in plastics and rubbers. VTT Technology, no. 186, VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Espoo.

Ash forming elements in plastics and rubbers. / Ranta-Korpi, Matti; Vainikka, Pasi; Konttinen, Jukka; Saarimaa, Antti; Rodriguez, Milena.

Espoo : VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, 2014. 131 p. (VTT Technology; No. 186).

Research output: Book/ReportReportProfessional

TY - BOOK

T1 - Ash forming elements in plastics and rubbers

AU - Ranta-Korpi, Matti

AU - Vainikka, Pasi

AU - Konttinen, Jukka

AU - Saarimaa, Antti

AU - Rodriguez, Milena

N1 - Project code: 71707

PY - 2014

Y1 - 2014

N2 - Metals, alkali metals and halogens found in solid fuels cause various operational problems in boilers and furnaces: emissions, ash melting, ash deposition and corrosion. The role of ash-forming elements found in plastics have received little attention in the literature. All commercial plastics and rubbers, particularly polyvinyl chloride (PVC), polyethylene (PE), polypropylene (PP), polyethylene terephthalate (PET), polybutylene terephthalate (PBT), polystyrene (PS) and polyurethane (PU) contain additives serving various functions. These additives may be utilized as catalysts, curing agents for rubbers, stabilizers, fillers, pigments and flame retardants. In many cases these compounds contain metal, halogen, sulfur and alkaline earth metal (i.e. magnesium, calcium and barium) atoms bonded to the structures of additive compounds. The usage levels of the additive compounds may be several percent of the weight of the polymer, leading to high elemental concentrations of metal, halogen, sulfur and alkaline earth metal. In this review paper, metals, halogens, sulfur and earth alkaline metal containing polymer additives and polymers most widely used are introduced separately. Starting from the evaluation of the chemical formula of the additive compound, going through its typical targets of use, and also estimating the concentration range of the elemental sulfur/metal/halogen present in the final polymer. The element concentrations of metal, halogen, sulfur and alkaline earth metal compounds vary significantly, ranging from several hundreds of mg/kg units up to several thousands of mg/kg in the polymer, depending on the application.

AB - Metals, alkali metals and halogens found in solid fuels cause various operational problems in boilers and furnaces: emissions, ash melting, ash deposition and corrosion. The role of ash-forming elements found in plastics have received little attention in the literature. All commercial plastics and rubbers, particularly polyvinyl chloride (PVC), polyethylene (PE), polypropylene (PP), polyethylene terephthalate (PET), polybutylene terephthalate (PBT), polystyrene (PS) and polyurethane (PU) contain additives serving various functions. These additives may be utilized as catalysts, curing agents for rubbers, stabilizers, fillers, pigments and flame retardants. In many cases these compounds contain metal, halogen, sulfur and alkaline earth metal (i.e. magnesium, calcium and barium) atoms bonded to the structures of additive compounds. The usage levels of the additive compounds may be several percent of the weight of the polymer, leading to high elemental concentrations of metal, halogen, sulfur and alkaline earth metal. In this review paper, metals, halogens, sulfur and earth alkaline metal containing polymer additives and polymers most widely used are introduced separately. Starting from the evaluation of the chemical formula of the additive compound, going through its typical targets of use, and also estimating the concentration range of the elemental sulfur/metal/halogen present in the final polymer. The element concentrations of metal, halogen, sulfur and alkaline earth metal compounds vary significantly, ranging from several hundreds of mg/kg units up to several thousands of mg/kg in the polymer, depending on the application.

KW - municipal solid waste

KW - plastic solid waste

KW - additives

KW - halogens

KW - sulfur

KW - alkaline earth metals

KW - yhdyskuntajäte

KW - muovijäte

KW - halogeenit

KW - rikki

KW - alkali maa metallit

M3 - Report

SN - 978-951-38-8157-3

T3 - VTT Technology

BT - Ash forming elements in plastics and rubbers

PB - VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland

CY - Espoo

ER -

Ranta-Korpi M, Vainikka P, Konttinen J, Saarimaa A, Rodriguez M. Ash forming elements in plastics and rubbers. Espoo: VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, 2014. 131 p. (VTT Technology; No. 186).