Ash in composting of source-separated catering waste

Niina Koivula (Corresponding Author), Tarja Räikkönen, Sari Urpilainen, Jussi Ranta, Kari Hänninen

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

41 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Our earlier experiments in small composters (220 l) indicated the favourable effect of ash from co-incineration of sorted dry waste on the composting of catering waste. The aim of this new study was to clarify further, at a scale of 10 m3, the feasibility of using similar ash as an additive in composting.

Source-separated catering waste was mixed with bulking agent (peat and wood chips) and fuel ash from a small (4 MW) district heating power plant. Three compost mixes (CM) were obtained: CM I with 0%, CM II with 10% and CM III with 20 wt.% of fuel ash. These three different mixes were composted in a 10-m3 drum composter as three parallel experiments for 2 weeks each, from January to April 2000. After drum composting, masses were placed according to mixing proportions in separate curing piles.

The catering waste fed to the drum was cold, sometimes icy. Even then the temperature rapidly increased to over 50 °C. In CM III, the temperature rose as high as 80 °C, and after the first week of composting the temperature was about 20 °C higher in the CMs II and III than in the CM I. It also improved the oxygen concentrations at the feeding end of the drum and obviously prevented the formation of H2S. No odour problems arose during the composting. Addition of ash increased the heavy metal contents of the composting masses, but the compost was suitable for cultivation or green area construction. Ash clearly decreased the loss of total nitrogen in a time span of 2 years. The lower amounts of nitrogen mean that the amounts applied per hectare can be greater than for normal composts.

Measured by mineralization, the breaking down of the organic matter was more rapid in the CM III than in the CM I. Humic acid increased steadily during first 12 months composting, from the initial 39 mg/g organic matter to 115 and 137 mg/g in CMs II and III. Measured by temperature, mineralization and humification the addition of ash appeared to boost the composting. Ash had also other beneficial effects on composting it improved the availability of oxygen in compost mass during the drum composting phase and reduced the formation of odorous gases, especially H2S.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)291 - 299
Number of pages9
JournalBioresource Technology
Volume93
Issue number3
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2004
MoE publication typeA1 Journal article-refereed

Fingerprint

Ashes
Composting
composting
compost
ash
Biological materials
Nitrogen
Oxygen
temperature
Humic Substances
mineralization
Temperature
District heating
Waste incineration
Peat
organic matter
oxygen
Odors
humification
Heavy Metals

Keywords

  • composting
  • composts
  • catering waste
  • ash
  • additive

Cite this

Koivula, N., Räikkönen, T., Urpilainen, S., Ranta, J., & Hänninen, K. (2004). Ash in composting of source-separated catering waste. Bioresource Technology, 93(3), 291 - 299. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biortech.2003.10.025
Koivula, Niina ; Räikkönen, Tarja ; Urpilainen, Sari ; Ranta, Jussi ; Hänninen, Kari. / Ash in composting of source-separated catering waste. In: Bioresource Technology. 2004 ; Vol. 93, No. 3. pp. 291 - 299.
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Koivula, N, Räikkönen, T, Urpilainen, S, Ranta, J & Hänninen, K 2004, 'Ash in composting of source-separated catering waste', Bioresource Technology, vol. 93, no. 3, pp. 291 - 299. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biortech.2003.10.025

Ash in composting of source-separated catering waste. / Koivula, Niina (Corresponding Author); Räikkönen, Tarja; Urpilainen, Sari; Ranta, Jussi; Hänninen, Kari.

In: Bioresource Technology, Vol. 93, No. 3, 2004, p. 291 - 299.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

TY - JOUR

T1 - Ash in composting of source-separated catering waste

AU - Koivula, Niina

AU - Räikkönen, Tarja

AU - Urpilainen, Sari

AU - Ranta, Jussi

AU - Hänninen, Kari

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N2 - Our earlier experiments in small composters (220 l) indicated the favourable effect of ash from co-incineration of sorted dry waste on the composting of catering waste. The aim of this new study was to clarify further, at a scale of 10 m3, the feasibility of using similar ash as an additive in composting.Source-separated catering waste was mixed with bulking agent (peat and wood chips) and fuel ash from a small (4 MW) district heating power plant. Three compost mixes (CM) were obtained: CM I with 0%, CM II with 10% and CM III with 20 wt.% of fuel ash. These three different mixes were composted in a 10-m3 drum composter as three parallel experiments for 2 weeks each, from January to April 2000. After drum composting, masses were placed according to mixing proportions in separate curing piles.The catering waste fed to the drum was cold, sometimes icy. Even then the temperature rapidly increased to over 50 °C. In CM III, the temperature rose as high as 80 °C, and after the first week of composting the temperature was about 20 °C higher in the CMs II and III than in the CM I. It also improved the oxygen concentrations at the feeding end of the drum and obviously prevented the formation of H2S. No odour problems arose during the composting. Addition of ash increased the heavy metal contents of the composting masses, but the compost was suitable for cultivation or green area construction. Ash clearly decreased the loss of total nitrogen in a time span of 2 years. The lower amounts of nitrogen mean that the amounts applied per hectare can be greater than for normal composts.Measured by mineralization, the breaking down of the organic matter was more rapid in the CM III than in the CM I. Humic acid increased steadily during first 12 months composting, from the initial 39 mg/g organic matter to 115 and 137 mg/g in CMs II and III. Measured by temperature, mineralization and humification the addition of ash appeared to boost the composting. Ash had also other beneficial effects on composting it improved the availability of oxygen in compost mass during the drum composting phase and reduced the formation of odorous gases, especially H2S.

AB - Our earlier experiments in small composters (220 l) indicated the favourable effect of ash from co-incineration of sorted dry waste on the composting of catering waste. The aim of this new study was to clarify further, at a scale of 10 m3, the feasibility of using similar ash as an additive in composting.Source-separated catering waste was mixed with bulking agent (peat and wood chips) and fuel ash from a small (4 MW) district heating power plant. Three compost mixes (CM) were obtained: CM I with 0%, CM II with 10% and CM III with 20 wt.% of fuel ash. These three different mixes were composted in a 10-m3 drum composter as three parallel experiments for 2 weeks each, from January to April 2000. After drum composting, masses were placed according to mixing proportions in separate curing piles.The catering waste fed to the drum was cold, sometimes icy. Even then the temperature rapidly increased to over 50 °C. In CM III, the temperature rose as high as 80 °C, and after the first week of composting the temperature was about 20 °C higher in the CMs II and III than in the CM I. It also improved the oxygen concentrations at the feeding end of the drum and obviously prevented the formation of H2S. No odour problems arose during the composting. Addition of ash increased the heavy metal contents of the composting masses, but the compost was suitable for cultivation or green area construction. Ash clearly decreased the loss of total nitrogen in a time span of 2 years. The lower amounts of nitrogen mean that the amounts applied per hectare can be greater than for normal composts.Measured by mineralization, the breaking down of the organic matter was more rapid in the CM III than in the CM I. Humic acid increased steadily during first 12 months composting, from the initial 39 mg/g organic matter to 115 and 137 mg/g in CMs II and III. Measured by temperature, mineralization and humification the addition of ash appeared to boost the composting. Ash had also other beneficial effects on composting it improved the availability of oxygen in compost mass during the drum composting phase and reduced the formation of odorous gases, especially H2S.

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KW - additive

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Koivula N, Räikkönen T, Urpilainen S, Ranta J, Hänninen K. Ash in composting of source-separated catering waste. Bioresource Technology. 2004;93(3):291 - 299. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biortech.2003.10.025