Assessing and applying biotic production indicators in the forest industry

Kalle Kinnunen

Research output: ThesisMaster's thesis


This Master’s thesis is part of European Union’s Orienting project, as part of which land use indicators are analysed and developed to be suitable in new Life Cycle Sustainability Assessment methodology. The study evaluated biotic production indicators and how they could be developed. Background related to the topic was acquired from literature and interviews with Stora Enso representatives, from which forest industry’s point of view was achieved. Two biotic production indicators were chosen for closer evaluation, and of which the more suitable was selected to be applied in the case study.

Objective of the study was to give recommendations on how biotic production indicator could be developed to match forest industry’s needs better. Indicator was evaluated with the help of the case study, where liquid packaging board container production’s impacts to three countries’ biotic production were assessed. According to observations made during the modelling process, development recommendations were given related to the applicability and the result interpretation.

As a result, targets for development were found from both terminology and impact assessment method. The terminology differs significantly between used database, impact assessment framework and applied indicator, which complicates the life cycle modelling process. In addition, the indicator cannot evaluate impacts from land transformation, which can affect significantly to final results, depending on the case.
Original languageEnglish
QualificationMaster Degree
Awarding Institution
  • Lappeenranta-Lahti University of Technology LUT
  • Behm, Katri, Supervisor
  • Soukka, Risto, Supervisor, External person
  • Grönman, Kaisa, Supervisor, External person
Thesis sponsors
Award date14 Sept 2022
Publication statusPublished - 6 Sept 2022
MoE publication typeG2 Master's thesis, polytechnic Master's thesis


  • Land use (LU)
  • biotic production
  • Life cycle assessment (LCA)
  • Life cycle impact assessment


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