Asymmetric Intra- and Intermolecular Hydroamination Catalyzed by 3,3′-Bis(trisarylsilyl)- and 3,3′-Bis(arylalkylsilyl)-Substituted Binaphtholate Rare-Earth-Metal Complexes

Hiep N. Nguyen, Hyeunjoo Lee, Stephan Audörsch, Alexander L. Reznichenko, Agnieszka J. Nawara-Hultzsch, Bernd Schmidt, Kai C. Hultzsch

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9 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

The series of novel 3,3′-bis(trisarylsilyl)- and 3,3′-bis(arylalkylsilyl)-substituted binaphtholate rare-earth-metal complexes 2a-i (SiR3 = Si(o-biphenylene)Ph (a), SiCyPh2 (b), Si-t-BuPh2 (c), Si(i-Pr)3 (d), SiCy2Ph (e), Si(2-tolyl)Ph2 (f), Si(4-t-Bu-C6H4)3 (g), Si(4-MeO-C6H4)Ph2 (h), SiBnPh2 (i)) have been prepared via arene elimination from [Ln(o-C6H4CH2NMe2)3] (Ln = Y, Lu) and the corresponding 3,3′-bis(silyl)-substituted binaphthol. The complexes exhibit high catalytic activity in the hydroamination/cyclization of aminoalkenes, with activities exceeding 1000 h-1 for (R)-2f-Ln, (R)-2g-Ln, and (R)-2h-Ln in the cyclization of 2,2-diphenylpent-4-enylamine (3a) at 25 °C, while the rigid dibenzosilole-substituted complexes (R)-2a-Ln and the triisopropylsilyl-substituted complexes (R)-2d-Ln exhibited the lowest activity in the range of 150-270 h-1. Catalysts (R)-2b-Lu, (R)-2c-Lu, (R)-2f-Lu, and (R)-2i-Lu provide the highest selectivities for the majority of the substrates, while the yttrium congeners are usually less selective. The highest enantioselectivities of 96% ee were observed using (R)-2a-Lu and (R)-2c-Lu in the cyclization of (4E)-2,2,5-triphenylpent-4-enylamine (9). The reactions show apparently zero-order rate dependence on substrate concentration and first-order rate dependence on catalyst concentration, with some reactions exhibiting a slightly accelerated rate at high conversion due to a shift in the equilibrium between a less active, higher coordinate catalyst species in favor of a more active, lower coordinate species as a result of weaker binding of the hydroamination product in comparison to the aminoalkene substrate. The shift in equilibrium from the higher to the lower coordinate species is also entropically favored at elevated temperatures, which results in an unusual increase in selectivity in the cyclization of 2,2-dimethylpent-4-enylamine (3d), presumably due to a higher selectivity of the lower coordinate catalyst species. All binaphtholate yttrium complexes, except (R)-2a-Y, are catalytically active in the intermolecular hydroamination of benzylamines with terminal alkenes. The highest selectivity of 66% ee was observed for the reaction of benzylamine with 4-phenyl-1-butene using (R)-2h-Y at 110 °C.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)4358-4379
Number of pages22
JournalOrganometallics
Volume37
Issue number23
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 10 Dec 2018
MoE publication typeA1 Journal article-refereed

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