Atmospheric icing of sea structures

Lasse Makkonen

    Research output: Book/ReportReport

    13 Citations (Scopus)


    Atmospheric icing (icing due to fog, precipitation and water vapor in air) as a physical process and the problems it causes for ships and stationary offshore structures are reviewed. Estimation of the probability and severity of atmospheric icing based on climatological and geographical factors is discussed, and theoretical methods for calculating the intensity of atmospheric icing at sea are suggested. Existing data on the dependence of the atmospheric icing rate and the properties of the accreted ice on the meteorological conditions are analyzed. The methods of measuring the icing rate and ice prevention methods are discussed.

    Original languageEnglish
    Number of pages102
    Publication statusPublished - Apr 1984
    MoE publication typeD4 Published development or research report or study

    Publication series

    SeriesCRREL Monograph


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