Atomic layer deposition onto polymer surfaces

Research output: Book/ReportReport

Abstract

The goal was to study polymer films and coated paperboard as base substrates for atomic layer deposition (ALD), to understand the parameters affecting layer growth and functional properties, to characterize thin layers, and to assess their safety and sustainability. Barrier properties of most polymer films studied were improved by Al2O3 thin layers. The relative improvement was the most significant with cellulose and polyester films, while certain plastic additives completely prevented thin layer growth. Polymer pre-coatings on fiber-webs have to be smooth and have good film forming properties. Layer growth starts by sorption of precursors onto and into the polymer surface followed by chemical reactions with the polar oxygen groups of the polymer and a possible formation of an interphase. This is followed by cluster formation and growth through clusters. The amount of oxide needed to cover the polymer depends on its' surface chemistry. Surface chemistry of polymer film has an impact on the layer growth and final functional properties. Polymer pretreatments prior to the ALD can be used to improve the barrier properties. Ozone can activate difficult surfaces, and the barrier properties can be adjusted by choosing the oxygen source. In addition, deposition temperature should be as high as possible. Mechanical properties of oxide layers were improved by combining thinner oxide and inorganic-organic hybrid layers into a nanolaminate. In addition, a contact between the oxide layers and the bacteria promoted antimicrobial activity. Uniform Al2O3 barrier layers do not seem to fall under the EU's definition of nanomaterial. Migration of Al2O3 to food simulants was low. However, ALD coated polymers require a top layer to protect the oxide layer from stresses, to prevent dissolution and to act as a sealant.
Original languageEnglish
PublisherVTT Technical Research Centre of Finland
Number of pages35
Publication statusPublished - 2013
MoE publication typeD4 Published development or research report or study

Publication series

SeriesVTT Research Report
NumberVTT-R-07013-13

Fingerprint

atomic layer epitaxy
polymers
oxides
chemistry
sealers
polyesters
oxygen
barrier layers
cellulose
food
pretreatment
sorption
bacteria
ozone
safety
chemical reactions
dissolving
plastics
mechanical properties
coatings

Keywords

  • packaging
  • coatings
  • polymers
  • films
  • aluminium oxide
  • zinc oxide
  • atomic layer deposition
  • safety

Cite this

Vähä-Nissi, M., Pitkänen, M., Behm, K., & Salo, E. (2013). Atomic layer deposition onto polymer surfaces. VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland. VTT Research Report, No. VTT-R-07013-13
Vähä-Nissi, Mika ; Pitkänen, Marja ; Behm, Katri ; Salo, Erkki. / Atomic layer deposition onto polymer surfaces. VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, 2013. 35 p. (VTT Research Report; No. VTT-R-07013-13).
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Vähä-Nissi, M, Pitkänen, M, Behm, K & Salo, E 2013, Atomic layer deposition onto polymer surfaces. VTT Research Report, no. VTT-R-07013-13, VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland.

Atomic layer deposition onto polymer surfaces. / Vähä-Nissi, Mika; Pitkänen, Marja; Behm, Katri; Salo, Erkki.

VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, 2013. 35 p. (VTT Research Report; No. VTT-R-07013-13).

Research output: Book/ReportReport

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T1 - Atomic layer deposition onto polymer surfaces

AU - Vähä-Nissi, Mika

AU - Pitkänen, Marja

AU - Behm, Katri

AU - Salo, Erkki

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PY - 2013

Y1 - 2013

N2 - The goal was to study polymer films and coated paperboard as base substrates for atomic layer deposition (ALD), to understand the parameters affecting layer growth and functional properties, to characterize thin layers, and to assess their safety and sustainability. Barrier properties of most polymer films studied were improved by Al2O3 thin layers. The relative improvement was the most significant with cellulose and polyester films, while certain plastic additives completely prevented thin layer growth. Polymer pre-coatings on fiber-webs have to be smooth and have good film forming properties. Layer growth starts by sorption of precursors onto and into the polymer surface followed by chemical reactions with the polar oxygen groups of the polymer and a possible formation of an interphase. This is followed by cluster formation and growth through clusters. The amount of oxide needed to cover the polymer depends on its' surface chemistry. Surface chemistry of polymer film has an impact on the layer growth and final functional properties. Polymer pretreatments prior to the ALD can be used to improve the barrier properties. Ozone can activate difficult surfaces, and the barrier properties can be adjusted by choosing the oxygen source. In addition, deposition temperature should be as high as possible. Mechanical properties of oxide layers were improved by combining thinner oxide and inorganic-organic hybrid layers into a nanolaminate. In addition, a contact between the oxide layers and the bacteria promoted antimicrobial activity. Uniform Al2O3 barrier layers do not seem to fall under the EU's definition of nanomaterial. Migration of Al2O3 to food simulants was low. However, ALD coated polymers require a top layer to protect the oxide layer from stresses, to prevent dissolution and to act as a sealant.

AB - The goal was to study polymer films and coated paperboard as base substrates for atomic layer deposition (ALD), to understand the parameters affecting layer growth and functional properties, to characterize thin layers, and to assess their safety and sustainability. Barrier properties of most polymer films studied were improved by Al2O3 thin layers. The relative improvement was the most significant with cellulose and polyester films, while certain plastic additives completely prevented thin layer growth. Polymer pre-coatings on fiber-webs have to be smooth and have good film forming properties. Layer growth starts by sorption of precursors onto and into the polymer surface followed by chemical reactions with the polar oxygen groups of the polymer and a possible formation of an interphase. This is followed by cluster formation and growth through clusters. The amount of oxide needed to cover the polymer depends on its' surface chemistry. Surface chemistry of polymer film has an impact on the layer growth and final functional properties. Polymer pretreatments prior to the ALD can be used to improve the barrier properties. Ozone can activate difficult surfaces, and the barrier properties can be adjusted by choosing the oxygen source. In addition, deposition temperature should be as high as possible. Mechanical properties of oxide layers were improved by combining thinner oxide and inorganic-organic hybrid layers into a nanolaminate. In addition, a contact between the oxide layers and the bacteria promoted antimicrobial activity. Uniform Al2O3 barrier layers do not seem to fall under the EU's definition of nanomaterial. Migration of Al2O3 to food simulants was low. However, ALD coated polymers require a top layer to protect the oxide layer from stresses, to prevent dissolution and to act as a sealant.

KW - packaging

KW - coatings

KW - polymers

KW - films

KW - aluminium oxide

KW - zinc oxide

KW - atomic layer deposition

KW - safety

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T3 - VTT Research Report

BT - Atomic layer deposition onto polymer surfaces

PB - VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland

ER -

Vähä-Nissi M, Pitkänen M, Behm K, Salo E. Atomic layer deposition onto polymer surfaces. VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, 2013. 35 p. (VTT Research Report; No. VTT-R-07013-13).