Average efficiency of power amplifiers in power-controlled systems with multi-antenna diversity

Olli Apilo, Mika Lasanen, Aarne Mämmelä, Friedrich K. Jondral

    Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference article in proceedingsScientificpeer-review

    1 Citation (Scopus)


    We present a study of average efficiency of power amplifiers (PAs) in power-controlled systems with multi-antenna diversity. The efficiencies are analytically calculated using the transmitted power distributions. Several well-known multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) diversity techniques, power control rules, PA classes, and channel models are considered. The considered diversity techniques are maximum ratio combining, selection combining, transmitting antenna selection, and maximum ratio transmission. Also the probability of an OFDM symbol clipping caused by PA saturation is calculated for the system under study. The analytical results are verified using Monte Carlo simulations. The study shows that the input signal distribution, diversity techniques, and the power control cut-off value have a significant effect on the average PA efficiency. The highest average PA efficiency is achieved when input signal has constant amplitude and selection combining is used. The presented results can be applied for an arbitrary PA e.g. when comparing the efficiency of different PAs
    Original languageEnglish
    Title of host publication2011 Wireless Telecommunications Symposium (WTS)
    PublisherIEEE Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers
    ISBN (Electronic)978-1-4577-0161-0, 978-1-4577-0160-3
    ISBN (Print)978-1-4577-0162-7
    Publication statusPublished - 2011
    MoE publication typeA4 Article in a conference publication
    EventWireless Telecommunications Symposium, WTS - New York, United States
    Duration: 13 Apr 201115 Apr 2011


    ConferenceWireless Telecommunications Symposium, WTS
    Abbreviated titleWTS
    Country/TerritoryUnited States
    CityNew York


    • power amplifier
    • average efficiency
    • power control
    • diversity
    • MIMO


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