Juha Kiviluoma (Developer), Erkka Rinne (Developer), Topi Rasku (Developer), Niina Helistö (Developer), Dana Kirchem (Developer), Ran Li (Developer), Ciara O'Dwyer (Developer), Jussi Ikäheimo (Developer), Tomi J. Lindroos (Developer)

Research output: Non-textual formSoftwareGeneral public


Backbone is a generic energy network optimization tool written in GAMS. It has been designed to be highly adaptable in different dimensions: temporal, spatial, technology representation and market design. The model can represent stochastics with a model predictive control method, with short-term forecasts and longer-term statistical uncertainties. Backbone can support multiple different models due to the modifiable temporal structure and varying lengths of the time steps.

Backbone is available at

If you use Backbone in a published work, please cite the following publication, which describes the Backbone energy systems modelling framework

v1.2 Nov 12, 2019
v1.1 Jun 10, 2019

Original languageEnglish
Publication statusPublished - 2019
MoE publication typeNot Eligible


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