Bale density of reed canary grass spring harvest

Timo Lötjönen, Teuvo Paappanen

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

10 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Production of reed canary grass (RCG) for combined heat and power plant fuel or for use in biorefineries has proven to be environmentally durable. The low density of RCG bales results in high harvest and logistics costs, and in order for RCG production to become economic production costs have to be decreased. This study aimed to identify baler types that make dense bales and to explore the factors that affect density of round bales when dry and coarse material is baled.

A large square baler with a pre-compression chamber produced the densest and best shaped bales. The transport loads of good square bales can be 30–60% heavier than those of round bales. Bales from a variable chamber round baler were about 10% denser than those from a fixed chamber baler. According to the data collected from farms, variation in densities of RCG round bales was substantial. Even balers based on similar models can produce bales that vary enormously in term of density. In the experiments comprising this study a modern round baler produced largely homogeneous bales, even when various driving speeds and windrow sizes were used. When high bale densities are required, the most important determining factor is the bale chamber opening pressure adjustment.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)53-59
JournalBiomass and Bioenergy
Volume51
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2013
MoE publication typeA1 Journal article-refereed

Fingerprint

Phalaris arundinacea
grass
Cogeneration plants
balers
Farms
Logistics
Costs
biorefining
combined heat and power
power plants
production cost
Economics
production costs
logistics
power plant
compression
reed
harvest
farm
heat

Keywords

  • baler
  • baling
  • density
  • energy crops
  • losses
  • phalaris arundinacea L.

Cite this

Lötjönen, Timo ; Paappanen, Teuvo. / Bale density of reed canary grass spring harvest. In: Biomass and Bioenergy. 2013 ; Vol. 51. pp. 53-59.
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abstract = "Production of reed canary grass (RCG) for combined heat and power plant fuel or for use in biorefineries has proven to be environmentally durable. The low density of RCG bales results in high harvest and logistics costs, and in order for RCG production to become economic production costs have to be decreased. This study aimed to identify baler types that make dense bales and to explore the factors that affect density of round bales when dry and coarse material is baled.A large square baler with a pre-compression chamber produced the densest and best shaped bales. The transport loads of good square bales can be 30–60{\%} heavier than those of round bales. Bales from a variable chamber round baler were about 10{\%} denser than those from a fixed chamber baler. According to the data collected from farms, variation in densities of RCG round bales was substantial. Even balers based on similar models can produce bales that vary enormously in term of density. In the experiments comprising this study a modern round baler produced largely homogeneous bales, even when various driving speeds and windrow sizes were used. When high bale densities are required, the most important determining factor is the bale chamber opening pressure adjustment.",
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Bale density of reed canary grass spring harvest. / Lötjönen, Timo; Paappanen, Teuvo.

In: Biomass and Bioenergy, Vol. 51, 2013, p. 53-59.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

TY - JOUR

T1 - Bale density of reed canary grass spring harvest

AU - Lötjönen, Timo

AU - Paappanen, Teuvo

PY - 2013

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N2 - Production of reed canary grass (RCG) for combined heat and power plant fuel or for use in biorefineries has proven to be environmentally durable. The low density of RCG bales results in high harvest and logistics costs, and in order for RCG production to become economic production costs have to be decreased. This study aimed to identify baler types that make dense bales and to explore the factors that affect density of round bales when dry and coarse material is baled.A large square baler with a pre-compression chamber produced the densest and best shaped bales. The transport loads of good square bales can be 30–60% heavier than those of round bales. Bales from a variable chamber round baler were about 10% denser than those from a fixed chamber baler. According to the data collected from farms, variation in densities of RCG round bales was substantial. Even balers based on similar models can produce bales that vary enormously in term of density. In the experiments comprising this study a modern round baler produced largely homogeneous bales, even when various driving speeds and windrow sizes were used. When high bale densities are required, the most important determining factor is the bale chamber opening pressure adjustment.

AB - Production of reed canary grass (RCG) for combined heat and power plant fuel or for use in biorefineries has proven to be environmentally durable. The low density of RCG bales results in high harvest and logistics costs, and in order for RCG production to become economic production costs have to be decreased. This study aimed to identify baler types that make dense bales and to explore the factors that affect density of round bales when dry and coarse material is baled.A large square baler with a pre-compression chamber produced the densest and best shaped bales. The transport loads of good square bales can be 30–60% heavier than those of round bales. Bales from a variable chamber round baler were about 10% denser than those from a fixed chamber baler. According to the data collected from farms, variation in densities of RCG round bales was substantial. Even balers based on similar models can produce bales that vary enormously in term of density. In the experiments comprising this study a modern round baler produced largely homogeneous bales, even when various driving speeds and windrow sizes were used. When high bale densities are required, the most important determining factor is the bale chamber opening pressure adjustment.

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