The potential for implementing carbon capture in Nordic industry sectors such as iron and steel production, cement and lime production, onshore and offshore oil and gas activities and pulp and paper production has been addressed. In Norway, much of the CO2 is emitted from the oil and gas sector. In Denmark the power and heat production comprises the largest share while in Sweden and Finland biomass based industry such as power and heat production in CHP plants and pulp and paper production generates most of the CO2 emissions. Iceland emits most CO2 from metal industry, in particular non-ferrous metal production. In a Nordic perspective, the oil and gas industry has a high potential for implementation of CCS along with iron and steel production and cement production. Only cement production and pulp and paper production industries seem to have potential to decrease the CO2 emissions close to zero. Capturing biogenic CO2 from pulp and paper production could remove CO2 from the atmosphere and create a carbon sink. Clustering of emission sources and implementing a joint CCS (Carbon Capture and Storage) chain could possibly lower the CCS unit costs. Process alterations and industry specific solutions due to the implementation of CCS in industry could improve existing processes. However, the possibility for carbon leakage could decrease the competitiveness of Nordic industries significantly as long as there is no global agreement on reduction of CO2 emissions.
Onarheim, K., Mathisen, A., & Arasto, A. (2015). Barriers and opportunities for application of CCS in Nordic industry: A sectorial approach. International Journal of Greenhouse Gas Control, 36, 93-105. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijggc.2015.02.009