Battery Energy Storage System (BESS) as a service in Finland: Business model and regulatory challenges

Ariana Ramos (Corresponding Author), Markku Tuovinen, Mia Ala-Juusela

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

21 Citations (Scopus)


Battery Energy Storage Systems (BESS) can provide services to the final customer using electricity, to a microgrid, and/or to external actors such as the Distribution System Operator (DSO) and Transmission System Operator (TSO). In this paper, BESS as a service business model archetypes are drawn from case studies of 10 BESS as a service projects in Finland. It is found that, in addition to the service being provided by the BESS, the ownership of the system can vary: it can either be owned by the final consumer of electricity or by a third party who will provide the BESS as a service. The findings of the interviews are placed within the Finnish regulatory framework for storage and demand response services. It is concluded that the key enablers for the BESS as a service business model are a regulatory framework that allows stacked revenues and technological interoperability across a multi-customer business model.

Original languageEnglish
Article number102720
Number of pages8
JournalJournal of Energy Storage
Publication statusPublished - Aug 2021
MoE publication typeA1 Journal article-refereed


  • Battery energy storage system
  • BESS
  • storage business model


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