Beam-Reconfigurable Antenna Based on Vector Modulator and Rotman Lens on LTCC

Sabin Kumar Karki (Corresponding Author), Mikko Varonen, Mikko Kaunisto, Arto Rantala, Markku Lahti, Antti Lamminen, Jan Holmberg, Mikko Kantanen, Juha Ala-Laurinaho, Ville Viikari

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

3 Citations (Scopus)
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A beam-switching array is designed using a 4 × 6 Rotman lens as a beam-forming network to switch the beam towards -30°, -10°, 10°, and 30°. Six substrate integrated waveguide fed 1 × 4 microstrip patch arrays are used as the radiating elements. The beam-switching array is designed on the LTCC substrate to operate at 71-76 GHz. In this work, the feasibility of implementing a beam-switching network with a vector modulator (VM) integrated circuit as switching element is studied for the first time. The measured radiation pattern of the beam-switching array with the VM is in line with the simulated radiation pattern. The measured peak realized gain of the beam port 1, 2, 3, and 4 with 3-dB backoff gain of the VM are 17, 17, 17.8, 16.9 dBi at 75 GHz, respectively. In addition, the work demonstrates the possibility of beam-reconfigurability in beam-switching array by simultaneous excitation of the beam ports in optimum phase using the VM. The simultaneous excitation of the adjacent two ports, 1-2, 2-3, and 3-4, steer the beam towards -19°, 0°, and 19°, respectively, which improves the beam cross-over level. With various combinations of simultaneous excitation, the half power beam-width of the beam-switching array is varied from 17.8° to 75°.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)52872-52882
JournalIEEE Access
Publication statusPublished - 2021
MoE publication typeA1 Journal article-refereed


  • Array
  • beam reconfigurability
  • beam-switching
  • microstrip patch antenna
  • millimeter-wave
  • Rotman lens
  • vector modulator


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