Behavior of martensitic wear resistant steels in abrasion and impact wear testing conditions: Dissertation

Research output: ThesisDissertationCollection of Articles


Wear is a complex phenomenon present in both small and large scale in the industry, but also in our everyday life. The ability of a material to resist wear is not an intrinsic mechanical property, as it depends on the tribosystem as a whole, including all the environmental and operational factors. One of the aims of this work is to analyze the wear testing methods used for abrasive, impact, and impact-abrasive wear performance assessment of materials and thus to add to the current understanding of the wear testing in such conditions.

In this work, wear tests with various test devices were conducted on wear resistant martensitic steels. The tests include high-stress abrasive wear tests with crushing pin-on-disc and uniaxial crusher, impact-abrasive tests with impeller-tumbler, and impact tests with single and continuous impact testers. The impeller-tumbler method was analyzed in more detail by examining the effects of sample angle and test duration as well as the effects of testing procedures on the test results. In high-stress wear tests, the amount of wear was determined through mass loss measurements, while in the impact tests measurements of the impact scars were made. The wear surfaces were characterized with optical and electron microscopy, optical profilometry and residual stress measurements. Moreover, the behavior and changes in the subsurface and microstructure of the materials were studied from prepared cross sections with optical and electron microscopy, microhardness measurements and electron backscatter diffraction.

In wear testing, selection of correct parameters is important, as they affect the wear mechanisms present on the sample surfaces. In abrasive wear, abrasive properties and even indirect counterparts have an influence on the forming wear mechanisms, which finally govern the severity of material removal. On the other hand, some similarities in the wear behavior of wear resistant steels in different abrasive contact conditions of sliding, gouging and impacting could be observed: the harder steels presented more scratching, which can be correlated to their lower ability of plastic deformation and higher amount of cutting. To ensure reaching the correct (steady) state of wear, tests should be of adequate duration, as the response of materials to many contact conditions may be nonlinear and reveal certain evolution of microstructures only after longer exposure.

Wear tests enable the comparison of materials in controlled conditions, but close attention on the test procedures must be paid also when conducting seemingly robust wear tests, especially when the differences to be detected are small. As the tests themselves constitute a tribosystem, local changes in the conditions due to the test procedures, such as sample placement, must be properly understood in order to obtain reliable results. Understanding the concept of a tribosystem and the major interdependencies involved is essential for all wear testing methods and proper analysis of the experimental test results.
Original languageEnglish
QualificationDoctor Degree
Awarding Institution
  • Tampere University of Technology (TUT)
  • Kuokkala, Veli-Tapani, Supervisor, External person
Award date6 Nov 2015
Print ISBNs978-952-15-3610-6
Electronic ISBNs978-952-15-3627-4
Publication statusPublished - 2015
MoE publication typeG5 Doctoral dissertation (article)


  • kulumiskokeet
  • teräs
  • kuluminen
  • testausmenetelmät


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