Betaine supplementation causes increase in carnitine metabolites in the muscle and liver of mice fed a high-fat diet as studied by nontargeted LC-MS metabolomics approach

J. Pekkinen (Corresponding Author), K. Olli, A. Huotari, K. Tiihonen, P. Keski-Rahkonen, M. Lehtonen, S. Auriola, M. Kolehmainen, H. Mykkänen, Kaisa Poutanen, K. Hanhineva

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Abstract

Scope: Betaine (BET) reduces diet-induced liver lipid accumulation, and may relieve obesity-related metabolic disturbances. The aim of our study was to analyze metabolite alterations after supplementation of BET, polydextrose (PDX, a soluble dietary fiber), or their combination (BET PDX) via drinking water to C57BL/6J mice fed a high-fat (HF) diet. Methods and results: BET supplementation increased BET levels in plasma, muscle, and liver (p < 0.05), and the nontargeted LC-MS metabolite profiling revealed an increase in several metabolites in the carnitine biosynthesis pathway after BET supplementation both in liver and muscle. These included carnitine and acetylcarnitine (1.4-fold, p < 0.05), propionylcarnitine and ?-butyrobetaine (1.5-fold, p < 0.05), and several other short-chain acylcarnitines (p < 0.05) in muscle. These changes were slightly higher in the BET PDX group. Furthermore, BET reduced the HF diet induced accumulation of triglycerides in liver (p < 0.05). The supplementations did not attenuate the HF diet induced increase in body weight gain or the increase in adipose tissue mass. Instead, the combination of BET and PDX tended to increase adiposity. Conclusion: Our results suggest that increased availability of BET in different tissues, especially in muscle, after BET supplementation has an impact on carnitine metabolism, and this could further explain the link between BET and lipid metabolism.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1959-1968
Number of pages9
JournalMolecular Nutrition and Food Research
Volume57
Issue number11
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2013
MoE publication typeA1 Journal article-refereed

Fingerprint

Betaine
Metabolomics
Carnitine
carnitine
betaine
metabolomics
High Fat Diet
high fat diet
metabolites
Muscles
muscles
liver
Liver
mice
propionylcarnitine
polydextrose
Acetylcarnitine
Adiposity
Dietary Fiber
adiposity

Keywords

  • betaine
  • carnitine
  • nontargeted metabolite profiling
  • polydextrose
  • tissue metabolomics

Cite this

Pekkinen, J. ; Olli, K. ; Huotari, A. ; Tiihonen, K. ; Keski-Rahkonen, P. ; Lehtonen, M. ; Auriola, S. ; Kolehmainen, M. ; Mykkänen, H. ; Poutanen, Kaisa ; Hanhineva, K. / Betaine supplementation causes increase in carnitine metabolites in the muscle and liver of mice fed a high-fat diet as studied by nontargeted LC-MS metabolomics approach. In: Molecular Nutrition and Food Research. 2013 ; Vol. 57, No. 11. pp. 1959-1968.
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title = "Betaine supplementation causes increase in carnitine metabolites in the muscle and liver of mice fed a high-fat diet as studied by nontargeted LC-MS metabolomics approach",
abstract = "Scope: Betaine (BET) reduces diet-induced liver lipid accumulation, and may relieve obesity-related metabolic disturbances. The aim of our study was to analyze metabolite alterations after supplementation of BET, polydextrose (PDX, a soluble dietary fiber), or their combination (BET PDX) via drinking water to C57BL/6J mice fed a high-fat (HF) diet. Methods and results: BET supplementation increased BET levels in plasma, muscle, and liver (p < 0.05), and the nontargeted LC-MS metabolite profiling revealed an increase in several metabolites in the carnitine biosynthesis pathway after BET supplementation both in liver and muscle. These included carnitine and acetylcarnitine (1.4-fold, p < 0.05), propionylcarnitine and ?-butyrobetaine (1.5-fold, p < 0.05), and several other short-chain acylcarnitines (p < 0.05) in muscle. These changes were slightly higher in the BET PDX group. Furthermore, BET reduced the HF diet induced accumulation of triglycerides in liver (p < 0.05). The supplementations did not attenuate the HF diet induced increase in body weight gain or the increase in adipose tissue mass. Instead, the combination of BET and PDX tended to increase adiposity. Conclusion: Our results suggest that increased availability of BET in different tissues, especially in muscle, after BET supplementation has an impact on carnitine metabolism, and this could further explain the link between BET and lipid metabolism.",
keywords = "betaine, carnitine, nontargeted metabolite profiling, polydextrose, tissue metabolomics",
author = "J. Pekkinen and K. Olli and A. Huotari and K. Tiihonen and P. Keski-Rahkonen and M. Lehtonen and S. Auriola and M. Kolehmainen and H. Mykk{\"a}nen and Kaisa Poutanen and K. Hanhineva",
year = "2013",
doi = "10.1002/mnfr.201300142",
language = "English",
volume = "57",
pages = "1959--1968",
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Pekkinen, J, Olli, K, Huotari, A, Tiihonen, K, Keski-Rahkonen, P, Lehtonen, M, Auriola, S, Kolehmainen, M, Mykkänen, H, Poutanen, K & Hanhineva, K 2013, 'Betaine supplementation causes increase in carnitine metabolites in the muscle and liver of mice fed a high-fat diet as studied by nontargeted LC-MS metabolomics approach', Molecular Nutrition and Food Research, vol. 57, no. 11, pp. 1959-1968. https://doi.org/10.1002/mnfr.201300142

Betaine supplementation causes increase in carnitine metabolites in the muscle and liver of mice fed a high-fat diet as studied by nontargeted LC-MS metabolomics approach. / Pekkinen, J. (Corresponding Author); Olli, K.; Huotari, A.; Tiihonen, K.; Keski-Rahkonen, P.; Lehtonen, M.; Auriola, S.; Kolehmainen, M.; Mykkänen, H.; Poutanen, Kaisa; Hanhineva, K.

In: Molecular Nutrition and Food Research, Vol. 57, No. 11, 2013, p. 1959-1968.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

TY - JOUR

T1 - Betaine supplementation causes increase in carnitine metabolites in the muscle and liver of mice fed a high-fat diet as studied by nontargeted LC-MS metabolomics approach

AU - Pekkinen, J.

AU - Olli, K.

AU - Huotari, A.

AU - Tiihonen, K.

AU - Keski-Rahkonen, P.

AU - Lehtonen, M.

AU - Auriola, S.

AU - Kolehmainen, M.

AU - Mykkänen, H.

AU - Poutanen, Kaisa

AU - Hanhineva, K.

PY - 2013

Y1 - 2013

N2 - Scope: Betaine (BET) reduces diet-induced liver lipid accumulation, and may relieve obesity-related metabolic disturbances. The aim of our study was to analyze metabolite alterations after supplementation of BET, polydextrose (PDX, a soluble dietary fiber), or their combination (BET PDX) via drinking water to C57BL/6J mice fed a high-fat (HF) diet. Methods and results: BET supplementation increased BET levels in plasma, muscle, and liver (p < 0.05), and the nontargeted LC-MS metabolite profiling revealed an increase in several metabolites in the carnitine biosynthesis pathway after BET supplementation both in liver and muscle. These included carnitine and acetylcarnitine (1.4-fold, p < 0.05), propionylcarnitine and ?-butyrobetaine (1.5-fold, p < 0.05), and several other short-chain acylcarnitines (p < 0.05) in muscle. These changes were slightly higher in the BET PDX group. Furthermore, BET reduced the HF diet induced accumulation of triglycerides in liver (p < 0.05). The supplementations did not attenuate the HF diet induced increase in body weight gain or the increase in adipose tissue mass. Instead, the combination of BET and PDX tended to increase adiposity. Conclusion: Our results suggest that increased availability of BET in different tissues, especially in muscle, after BET supplementation has an impact on carnitine metabolism, and this could further explain the link between BET and lipid metabolism.

AB - Scope: Betaine (BET) reduces diet-induced liver lipid accumulation, and may relieve obesity-related metabolic disturbances. The aim of our study was to analyze metabolite alterations after supplementation of BET, polydextrose (PDX, a soluble dietary fiber), or their combination (BET PDX) via drinking water to C57BL/6J mice fed a high-fat (HF) diet. Methods and results: BET supplementation increased BET levels in plasma, muscle, and liver (p < 0.05), and the nontargeted LC-MS metabolite profiling revealed an increase in several metabolites in the carnitine biosynthesis pathway after BET supplementation both in liver and muscle. These included carnitine and acetylcarnitine (1.4-fold, p < 0.05), propionylcarnitine and ?-butyrobetaine (1.5-fold, p < 0.05), and several other short-chain acylcarnitines (p < 0.05) in muscle. These changes were slightly higher in the BET PDX group. Furthermore, BET reduced the HF diet induced accumulation of triglycerides in liver (p < 0.05). The supplementations did not attenuate the HF diet induced increase in body weight gain or the increase in adipose tissue mass. Instead, the combination of BET and PDX tended to increase adiposity. Conclusion: Our results suggest that increased availability of BET in different tissues, especially in muscle, after BET supplementation has an impact on carnitine metabolism, and this could further explain the link between BET and lipid metabolism.

KW - betaine

KW - carnitine

KW - nontargeted metabolite profiling

KW - polydextrose

KW - tissue metabolomics

U2 - 10.1002/mnfr.201300142

DO - 10.1002/mnfr.201300142

M3 - Article

VL - 57

SP - 1959

EP - 1968

JO - Molecular Nutrition and Food Research

JF - Molecular Nutrition and Food Research

SN - 1613-4125

IS - 11

ER -