Beyond AI: Multi-intelligence (MI) combining natural and artificial intelligences in hybrid beings and systems

Stephen Fox (Corresponding Author)

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticle


    Framing strongly influences actions among technology proponents and end-users. Underlying much debate about artificial intelligence (AI) are several fundamental shortcomings in its framing. First, discussion of AI is atheoretical, and therefore has limited potential for addressing the complexity of causation. Second, intelligence is considered from an anthropocentric perspective that sees human intelligence, and intelligence developed by humans, as superior to all other intelligences. Thus, the extensive post-anthropocentric research into intelligence is not given sufficient consideration. Third, AI is discussed often in reductionist mechanistic terms. Rather than in organicist emergentist terms as a contributor to multi-intelligence (MI) hybrid beings and/or systems. Thus, current framing of AI can be a self-validating reduction within which AI development is focused upon AI becoming the single-variable mechanism causing future effects. In this paper, AI is reframed as a contributor to MI.
    Original languageEnglish
    Pages (from-to)1-14
    Issue number3
    Publication statusPublished - 2017
    MoE publication typeA1 Journal article-refereed



    • artificial intelligence (AI)
    • Asilomar AI principles
    • framing
    • intelligence
    • multi-intelligence (MI) hybrid beings and systems
    • post-anthropocentric

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