Bio-Inspired Intelligent Systems: Negotiations between Minimum Manifest Task Entropy and Maximum Latent System Entropy in Changing Environments

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In theoretical physics and theoretical neuroscience, increased intelligence is associated with increased entropy, which entails potential access to an increased number of states that could facilitate adaptive behavior. Potential to access a larger number of states is a latent entropy as it refers to the number of states that could possibly be accessed, and it is also recognized that functioning needs to be efficient through minimization of manifest entropy. For example, in theoretical physics, the importance of efficiency is recognized through the observation that nature is thrifty in all its actions and through the principle of least action. In this paper, system intelligence is explained as capability to maintain internal stability while adapting to changing environments by minimizing manifest task entropy while maximizing latent system entropy. In addition, it is explained how automated negotiation relates to balancing adaptability and stability; and a mathematical negotiation model is presented that enables balancing of latent system entropy and manifest task entropy in intelligent systems. Furthermore, this first principles analysis of system intelligence is related to everyday challenges in production systems through multiple simulations of the negotiation model. The results indicate that manifest task entropy is minimized when maximization of latent system entropy is used as the criterion for task allocation in the simulated production scenarios.
Original languageEnglish
Article number1541
Issue number11
Publication statusPublished - 14 Nov 2023
MoE publication typeA1 Journal article-refereed


This research was funded by Academy of Finland, grant number 334536, and by VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland Ltd.


  • adaptability
  • automated negotiation
  • bio-inspired
  • intelligent systems
  • latent system entropy
  • manifest task entropy
  • robotics
  • stability


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