Biodegradability and Compostability of Nanofibrillar Cellulose-Based Products

Minna Vikman (Corresponding Author), Jari Vartiainen, Irina Tsitko, P Korhonen

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

21 Citations (Scopus)


Biodegradability and compostability of nanofibrillar cellulose-based (NFC) products including films, concentrated NFC and paper products containing NFC were evaluated under controlled composting conditions. All the NFC products tested were biodegradable according to the requirements set in European standard EN 13432. NFC even enhanced the rate of biodegradability of paper containing 1.5 % NFC as an additive. Disintegration during composting was evaluated using the modified pilot-scale composting test EN 14045. NFC films disintegrated completely in 3 weeks of composting, and NFC did not influence the degradability of paper products containing NFC. Ecotoxicity during biodegradation of NFC products in a compost environment was evaluated using a bioluminescence test with Vibrio fischeri. No acute toxicity was detected for any of the samples
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)206-215
JournalJournal of Polymers and the Environment
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - 2015
MoE publication typeA1 Journal article-refereed


  • Nanofibrillar cellulose
  • Cellulose nanofibrils
  • Biodegradation
  • Composting
  • Ecotoxicity

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