Biodegradability, Compostability and Safety of Cellulose Nanofibrils (CNF) and CNF Based Products

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference article in proceedingsScientific

Abstract

Cellulose nanomaterials have unique properties that make them potential for numerous applications. One of their most promising applications is transparent cellulose films with excellent strength, density and smoothness. Cellulose films could be utilized as gas barriers in packaging, substrates for printed electronics, in diagnostics or even as electronic displays instead of oil-based plastic films. From the safety point of view, the advantages of cellulose nanomaterials have been argued to be their benign nature towards humans and the environment as well as their biodegradability. However, when used in products, the biodegradability of cellulose nanomaterials might differ from that of pure materials. For example, during film preparation, the hydroxyl groups in the surface of cellulose nanofibrils form strong hydrogen bonds, which upon drying of the film could make it more resistant towards degradation. Results on the biodegradability of different grades of cellulose nanofibrils (CNF) and their products, namely CNF films and papers coated with CNF are presented in this paper. In addition, results on the toxicity of cellulose nanofibrils to humans as well as ecotoxicity during biodegradation in the composting environment are reported. The results of biodegradability tests (OECD 301B) of two different grades of CNF indicate that their biodegradability is dependent on the fibrillation degree, the finer grade degrading faster than the coarser grade. The biodegradability test (EN 14046) of CNF films and papers containing CNF showed that all the CNF products tested were biodegradable according to the requirements set in the standard (EN 13432). In the composting test (EN 14045) disintegration of CNF products was observed in the composting environment with no acute ecotoxicity during biodegradation. Regarding toxicity to humans, some indication of cytotoxicity was observed for nano-scale cellulose fibrils. However, all the other toxicity tests results, including in vivo tests with Nematode, showed no sign of toxicity.
Original languageEnglish
Title of host publication2015 TAPPI International Conference on Nanotechnology for Renewable Materials Proceedings
PublisherTAPPI Press
Publication statusPublished - 2015
MoE publication typeB3 Non-refereed article in conference proceedings
EventTAPPI International Conference on Nanotechnology for Renewable Materials, NANO 2015 - Atlanta, United States
Duration: 22 Jun 201525 Jun 2015

Conference

ConferenceTAPPI International Conference on Nanotechnology for Renewable Materials, NANO 2015
Abbreviated titleNANO 2015
CountryUnited States
CityAtlanta
Period22/06/1525/06/15

Fingerprint

nanofibers
biodegradability
cellulose
films (materials)
nanomaterials
composting
ecotoxicology
toxicity
biodegradation
electronics
testing
cellulosic materials
plastic film

Keywords

  • cellulose nanofibrils
  • CNF
  • film
  • paper
  • biodegradability
  • compostability
  • safety
  • ecotoxicity

Cite this

Kangas, H., Pitkänen, M., Vikman, M., Vartiainen, J., & Tsitko, I. (2015). Biodegradability, Compostability and Safety of Cellulose Nanofibrils (CNF) and CNF Based Products. In 2015 TAPPI International Conference on Nanotechnology for Renewable Materials Proceedings TAPPI Press.
Kangas, Heli ; Pitkänen, Marja ; Vikman, Minna ; Vartiainen, Jari ; Tsitko, Irina. / Biodegradability, Compostability and Safety of Cellulose Nanofibrils (CNF) and CNF Based Products. 2015 TAPPI International Conference on Nanotechnology for Renewable Materials Proceedings. TAPPI Press, 2015.
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title = "Biodegradability, Compostability and Safety of Cellulose Nanofibrils (CNF) and CNF Based Products",
abstract = "Cellulose nanomaterials have unique properties that make them potential for numerous applications. One of their most promising applications is transparent cellulose films with excellent strength, density and smoothness. Cellulose films could be utilized as gas barriers in packaging, substrates for printed electronics, in diagnostics or even as electronic displays instead of oil-based plastic films. From the safety point of view, the advantages of cellulose nanomaterials have been argued to be their benign nature towards humans and the environment as well as their biodegradability. However, when used in products, the biodegradability of cellulose nanomaterials might differ from that of pure materials. For example, during film preparation, the hydroxyl groups in the surface of cellulose nanofibrils form strong hydrogen bonds, which upon drying of the film could make it more resistant towards degradation. Results on the biodegradability of different grades of cellulose nanofibrils (CNF) and their products, namely CNF films and papers coated with CNF are presented in this paper. In addition, results on the toxicity of cellulose nanofibrils to humans as well as ecotoxicity during biodegradation in the composting environment are reported. The results of biodegradability tests (OECD 301B) of two different grades of CNF indicate that their biodegradability is dependent on the fibrillation degree, the finer grade degrading faster than the coarser grade. The biodegradability test (EN 14046) of CNF films and papers containing CNF showed that all the CNF products tested were biodegradable according to the requirements set in the standard (EN 13432). In the composting test (EN 14045) disintegration of CNF products was observed in the composting environment with no acute ecotoxicity during biodegradation. Regarding toxicity to humans, some indication of cytotoxicity was observed for nano-scale cellulose fibrils. However, all the other toxicity tests results, including in vivo tests with Nematode, showed no sign of toxicity.",
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Kangas, H, Pitkänen, M, Vikman, M, Vartiainen, J & Tsitko, I 2015, Biodegradability, Compostability and Safety of Cellulose Nanofibrils (CNF) and CNF Based Products. in 2015 TAPPI International Conference on Nanotechnology for Renewable Materials Proceedings. TAPPI Press, TAPPI International Conference on Nanotechnology for Renewable Materials, NANO 2015, Atlanta, United States, 22/06/15.

Biodegradability, Compostability and Safety of Cellulose Nanofibrils (CNF) and CNF Based Products. / Kangas, Heli; Pitkänen, Marja; Vikman, Minna; Vartiainen, Jari; Tsitko, Irina.

2015 TAPPI International Conference on Nanotechnology for Renewable Materials Proceedings. TAPPI Press, 2015.

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference article in proceedingsScientific

TY - GEN

T1 - Biodegradability, Compostability and Safety of Cellulose Nanofibrils (CNF) and CNF Based Products

AU - Kangas, Heli

AU - Pitkänen, Marja

AU - Vikman, Minna

AU - Vartiainen, Jari

AU - Tsitko, Irina

PY - 2015

Y1 - 2015

N2 - Cellulose nanomaterials have unique properties that make them potential for numerous applications. One of their most promising applications is transparent cellulose films with excellent strength, density and smoothness. Cellulose films could be utilized as gas barriers in packaging, substrates for printed electronics, in diagnostics or even as electronic displays instead of oil-based plastic films. From the safety point of view, the advantages of cellulose nanomaterials have been argued to be their benign nature towards humans and the environment as well as their biodegradability. However, when used in products, the biodegradability of cellulose nanomaterials might differ from that of pure materials. For example, during film preparation, the hydroxyl groups in the surface of cellulose nanofibrils form strong hydrogen bonds, which upon drying of the film could make it more resistant towards degradation. Results on the biodegradability of different grades of cellulose nanofibrils (CNF) and their products, namely CNF films and papers coated with CNF are presented in this paper. In addition, results on the toxicity of cellulose nanofibrils to humans as well as ecotoxicity during biodegradation in the composting environment are reported. The results of biodegradability tests (OECD 301B) of two different grades of CNF indicate that their biodegradability is dependent on the fibrillation degree, the finer grade degrading faster than the coarser grade. The biodegradability test (EN 14046) of CNF films and papers containing CNF showed that all the CNF products tested were biodegradable according to the requirements set in the standard (EN 13432). In the composting test (EN 14045) disintegration of CNF products was observed in the composting environment with no acute ecotoxicity during biodegradation. Regarding toxicity to humans, some indication of cytotoxicity was observed for nano-scale cellulose fibrils. However, all the other toxicity tests results, including in vivo tests with Nematode, showed no sign of toxicity.

AB - Cellulose nanomaterials have unique properties that make them potential for numerous applications. One of their most promising applications is transparent cellulose films with excellent strength, density and smoothness. Cellulose films could be utilized as gas barriers in packaging, substrates for printed electronics, in diagnostics or even as electronic displays instead of oil-based plastic films. From the safety point of view, the advantages of cellulose nanomaterials have been argued to be their benign nature towards humans and the environment as well as their biodegradability. However, when used in products, the biodegradability of cellulose nanomaterials might differ from that of pure materials. For example, during film preparation, the hydroxyl groups in the surface of cellulose nanofibrils form strong hydrogen bonds, which upon drying of the film could make it more resistant towards degradation. Results on the biodegradability of different grades of cellulose nanofibrils (CNF) and their products, namely CNF films and papers coated with CNF are presented in this paper. In addition, results on the toxicity of cellulose nanofibrils to humans as well as ecotoxicity during biodegradation in the composting environment are reported. The results of biodegradability tests (OECD 301B) of two different grades of CNF indicate that their biodegradability is dependent on the fibrillation degree, the finer grade degrading faster than the coarser grade. The biodegradability test (EN 14046) of CNF films and papers containing CNF showed that all the CNF products tested were biodegradable according to the requirements set in the standard (EN 13432). In the composting test (EN 14045) disintegration of CNF products was observed in the composting environment with no acute ecotoxicity during biodegradation. Regarding toxicity to humans, some indication of cytotoxicity was observed for nano-scale cellulose fibrils. However, all the other toxicity tests results, including in vivo tests with Nematode, showed no sign of toxicity.

KW - cellulose nanofibrils

KW - CNF

KW - film

KW - paper

KW - biodegradability

KW - compostability

KW - safety

KW - ecotoxicity

M3 - Conference article in proceedings

BT - 2015 TAPPI International Conference on Nanotechnology for Renewable Materials Proceedings

PB - TAPPI Press

ER -

Kangas H, Pitkänen M, Vikman M, Vartiainen J, Tsitko I. Biodegradability, Compostability and Safety of Cellulose Nanofibrils (CNF) and CNF Based Products. In 2015 TAPPI International Conference on Nanotechnology for Renewable Materials Proceedings. TAPPI Press. 2015