Biodegradability, compostability and safety of cellulose nanofibrils (CNF) and CNF-based products

Research output: Contribution to conferenceConference PosterScientific

Abstract

Cellulose nanomaterials have unique properties that make them potential for numerous applications. One of their most promising applications is transparent cellulose films with excellent strength, density and smoothness. Cellulose films could be utilized as gas barriers in packaging, substrates for printed electronics, in diagnostics or even as electronic displays instead of oil-based plastic films. From the safety point of view, the advantages of cellulose nanomaterials have been argued to be their benign nature towards humans and the environment as well as their biodegradability. Results on the biodegradability of different grades of cellulose nanofibrils (CNF) and their products, namely CNF films and papers coated with CNF are presented in this paper. In addition, results on the toxicity of cellulose nanofibrils to humans as well as ecotoxicity during biodegradation in the composting environment are reported. The results of biodegradability tests (OECD 301B) of two different grades of CNF indicate that their biodegradability is dependent on the fibrillation degree, the finer grade degrading faster than the coarser grade. The biodegradability test (EN 14046) of CNF films and papers containing CNF showed that all the CNF products tested were biodegradable according to the requirements set in the standard (EN 13432). In the composting test (EN 14045) disintegration of CNF products was observed in the composting environment with no acute ecotoxicity during biodegradation. Regarding toxicity to humans, some indication of cytotoxicity was observed for nano-scale cellulose fibrils. However, all the other toxicity tests results, including in vivo tests with Nematode, showed no sign of toxicity.
Original languageEnglish
Publication statusPublished - 2015
EventInternational Congress on Safety of Engineered Nanoparticles and Nanotechnologies, SENN2015 - Helsinki, Finland
Duration: 12 Apr 201515 Apr 2015

Conference

ConferenceInternational Congress on Safety of Engineered Nanoparticles and Nanotechnologies, SENN2015
Abbreviated titleSENN2015
CountryFinland
CityHelsinki
Period12/04/1515/04/15

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nanofibers
biodegradability
cellulose
films (materials)
composting
nanomaterials
ecotoxicology
toxicity
biodegradation
electronics
testing
cellulosic materials
plastic film
toxicity testing

Cite this

Kangas, H., Pitkänen, M., Vikman, M., Vartiainen, J., & Tsitko, I. (2015). Biodegradability, compostability and safety of cellulose nanofibrils (CNF) and CNF-based products. Poster session presented at International Congress on Safety of Engineered Nanoparticles and Nanotechnologies, SENN2015, Helsinki, Finland.
Kangas, Heli ; Pitkänen, Marja ; Vikman, Minna ; Vartiainen, Jari ; Tsitko, Irina. / Biodegradability, compostability and safety of cellulose nanofibrils (CNF) and CNF-based products. Poster session presented at International Congress on Safety of Engineered Nanoparticles and Nanotechnologies, SENN2015, Helsinki, Finland.
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title = "Biodegradability, compostability and safety of cellulose nanofibrils (CNF) and CNF-based products",
abstract = "Cellulose nanomaterials have unique properties that make them potential for numerous applications. One of their most promising applications is transparent cellulose films with excellent strength, density and smoothness. Cellulose films could be utilized as gas barriers in packaging, substrates for printed electronics, in diagnostics or even as electronic displays instead of oil-based plastic films. From the safety point of view, the advantages of cellulose nanomaterials have been argued to be their benign nature towards humans and the environment as well as their biodegradability. Results on the biodegradability of different grades of cellulose nanofibrils (CNF) and their products, namely CNF films and papers coated with CNF are presented in this paper. In addition, results on the toxicity of cellulose nanofibrils to humans as well as ecotoxicity during biodegradation in the composting environment are reported. The results of biodegradability tests (OECD 301B) of two different grades of CNF indicate that their biodegradability is dependent on the fibrillation degree, the finer grade degrading faster than the coarser grade. The biodegradability test (EN 14046) of CNF films and papers containing CNF showed that all the CNF products tested were biodegradable according to the requirements set in the standard (EN 13432). In the composting test (EN 14045) disintegration of CNF products was observed in the composting environment with no acute ecotoxicity during biodegradation. Regarding toxicity to humans, some indication of cytotoxicity was observed for nano-scale cellulose fibrils. However, all the other toxicity tests results, including in vivo tests with Nematode, showed no sign of toxicity.",
author = "Heli Kangas and Marja Pitk{\"a}nen and Minna Vikman and Jari Vartiainen and Irina Tsitko",
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year = "2015",
language = "English",

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Kangas, H, Pitkänen, M, Vikman, M, Vartiainen, J & Tsitko, I 2015, 'Biodegradability, compostability and safety of cellulose nanofibrils (CNF) and CNF-based products' International Congress on Safety of Engineered Nanoparticles and Nanotechnologies, SENN2015, Helsinki, Finland, 12/04/15 - 15/04/15, .

Biodegradability, compostability and safety of cellulose nanofibrils (CNF) and CNF-based products. / Kangas, Heli; Pitkänen, Marja; Vikman, Minna; Vartiainen, Jari; Tsitko, Irina.

2015. Poster session presented at International Congress on Safety of Engineered Nanoparticles and Nanotechnologies, SENN2015, Helsinki, Finland.

Research output: Contribution to conferenceConference PosterScientific

TY - CONF

T1 - Biodegradability, compostability and safety of cellulose nanofibrils (CNF) and CNF-based products

AU - Kangas, Heli

AU - Pitkänen, Marja

AU - Vikman, Minna

AU - Vartiainen, Jari

AU - Tsitko, Irina

N1 - Poster presentation

PY - 2015

Y1 - 2015

N2 - Cellulose nanomaterials have unique properties that make them potential for numerous applications. One of their most promising applications is transparent cellulose films with excellent strength, density and smoothness. Cellulose films could be utilized as gas barriers in packaging, substrates for printed electronics, in diagnostics or even as electronic displays instead of oil-based plastic films. From the safety point of view, the advantages of cellulose nanomaterials have been argued to be their benign nature towards humans and the environment as well as their biodegradability. Results on the biodegradability of different grades of cellulose nanofibrils (CNF) and their products, namely CNF films and papers coated with CNF are presented in this paper. In addition, results on the toxicity of cellulose nanofibrils to humans as well as ecotoxicity during biodegradation in the composting environment are reported. The results of biodegradability tests (OECD 301B) of two different grades of CNF indicate that their biodegradability is dependent on the fibrillation degree, the finer grade degrading faster than the coarser grade. The biodegradability test (EN 14046) of CNF films and papers containing CNF showed that all the CNF products tested were biodegradable according to the requirements set in the standard (EN 13432). In the composting test (EN 14045) disintegration of CNF products was observed in the composting environment with no acute ecotoxicity during biodegradation. Regarding toxicity to humans, some indication of cytotoxicity was observed for nano-scale cellulose fibrils. However, all the other toxicity tests results, including in vivo tests with Nematode, showed no sign of toxicity.

AB - Cellulose nanomaterials have unique properties that make them potential for numerous applications. One of their most promising applications is transparent cellulose films with excellent strength, density and smoothness. Cellulose films could be utilized as gas barriers in packaging, substrates for printed electronics, in diagnostics or even as electronic displays instead of oil-based plastic films. From the safety point of view, the advantages of cellulose nanomaterials have been argued to be their benign nature towards humans and the environment as well as their biodegradability. Results on the biodegradability of different grades of cellulose nanofibrils (CNF) and their products, namely CNF films and papers coated with CNF are presented in this paper. In addition, results on the toxicity of cellulose nanofibrils to humans as well as ecotoxicity during biodegradation in the composting environment are reported. The results of biodegradability tests (OECD 301B) of two different grades of CNF indicate that their biodegradability is dependent on the fibrillation degree, the finer grade degrading faster than the coarser grade. The biodegradability test (EN 14046) of CNF films and papers containing CNF showed that all the CNF products tested were biodegradable according to the requirements set in the standard (EN 13432). In the composting test (EN 14045) disintegration of CNF products was observed in the composting environment with no acute ecotoxicity during biodegradation. Regarding toxicity to humans, some indication of cytotoxicity was observed for nano-scale cellulose fibrils. However, all the other toxicity tests results, including in vivo tests with Nematode, showed no sign of toxicity.

M3 - Conference Poster

ER -

Kangas H, Pitkänen M, Vikman M, Vartiainen J, Tsitko I. Biodegradability, compostability and safety of cellulose nanofibrils (CNF) and CNF-based products. 2015. Poster session presented at International Congress on Safety of Engineered Nanoparticles and Nanotechnologies, SENN2015, Helsinki, Finland.