Biofilm Risks

Gun Wirtanen, Satu Salo

    Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapter or book articleProfessional

    15 Citations (Scopus)


    This chapter on biofilm risks deals with biofilm formation of pathogenic microbes, sampling and detection methods, biofilm removal, and prevention of biofilm formation. Several common pathogens produce sticky and/or slimy structures in which the cells are embedded, that is, biofilms, on various surfaces in food processing. Biofilms of common foodborne pathogens are reviewed. The issue of persistent and nonpersistent microbial contamination in food processing is also discussed. It has been shown that biofilms can be difficult to remove and can thus cause severe disinfection and cleaning problems in food factories. In the prevention of biofilm formation microbial control in process lines should both limit the number of microbes on surfaces and reduce microbial activity in the process. Thus the hygienic design of process equipment and process lines is important in improving the process hygiene of both contact and noncontact surfaces.
    Original languageEnglish
    Title of host publicationHandbook of Hygiene Control in the Food Industry
    EditorsHuub Lelieveld, John Holah, Domagoj Gabrić
    PublisherWoodhead Publishing
    ISBN (Electronic)978-0-08-100197-4
    ISBN (Print)978-0-08-100155-4
    Publication statusPublished - 2016
    MoE publication typeD2 Article in professional manuals or guides or professional information systems or text book material

    Publication series

    SeriesWoodhead Publishing Series in Food Science, Technology and Nutrition


    • Biofilm formation
    • pathogen
    • Listeria
    • Salmonella
    • hygienic design
    • biofilm removal


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