In this study, vehicle exhaust emissions and performance were studied using various renewable components with the aim of achieving a high bio-share in gasoline and compatibility with conventional cars. Several biogasoline components were included in the fuel matrix: ethanol, ETBE, isobutanol, n-butanol and renewable hydrocarbon gasoline produced from hydrotreated oils and fats. The share of bioenergy in the test fuel blends varied from 7 to 28 Eeqv%, and the oxygen content from 0 to 11 m/m%. Fossil gasoline was used as the reference fuel for emissions performance, and E85 fuel as an example of a typical market fuel for FFV cars. Experimental work was carried out at −7 °C with two conventional gasoline cars and one FFV car. The measurements included regulated and unregulated exhaust emissions. The results show the possibility of increasing the bioenergy content of gasoline to up to 30% for use with conventional gasoline-fuelled cars, which are not necessarily compatible with a fuel oxygen content higher than approximately 4 m/m%.
Aakko-Saksa, P., Rantanen-Kolehmainen, L., Koponen, P., Engman, A., & Kihlman, J. (2011). Biogasoline options: Possibilities for achieving high bio-share and compatibility with conventional cars. SAE International Journal of Fuels and Lubricants, 4(2), 298-317. https://doi.org/10.4271/2011-24-0111