The properties of solid biofuels discussed in this chapter are based on both literature published in this field and research carried out at VTT. The main properties of the fuels considered in this chapter are calorific value, chemical composition, moisture content, density, ash content, ash melting behaviour and concentrations of harmful substances, such as alkalis and heavy metals. Characteristics of different kinds of fuels, such as wood fuels, and agrobiomass fuels and oils, are presented in comparison tables. The material comprises mainly commercial fuels, which are traded locally (e.g. wood chips, straw bales) or internationally (e.g. wood pellets). Definitions for fuels and properties, sampling and sample reduction, analysis methods for different properties and formulas for calculation of values are also presented.
|Title of host publication||Fuel Flexible Energy Generation|
|Subtitle of host publication||Solid, Liquid and Gaseous Fuels|
|Publication status||Published - 2016|
|MoE publication type||D2 Article in professional manuals or guides or professional information systems or text book material|
|Series||Woodhead publishing series in energy|
Alakangas, E. (2016). Biomass and agricultural residues for energy generation. In J. Oakey (Ed.), Fuel Flexible Energy Generation: Solid, Liquid and Gaseous Fuels (pp. 59-96). Woodhead Publishing. Woodhead publishing series in energy, Vol.. 91 https://doi.org/10.1016/B978-1-78242-378-2.00003-1