BIOSMHARS: WP4 Model development and calibration - Requirements of the model: Deliverable 4.1

Ilpo Kulmala, Eero Kokkonen

Research output: Book/ReportReport

Abstract

Microorganisms are constant ecological partners of humans during manned space flight in hermetically sealed environments. Although the microbes are rarely a health risk to the crew members during relatively short duration flights, increased immuno-suppression on the one hand and microgravity induced effects like enhanced pathogenicity of microbes on the other hand may threaten the crew members' health during long distance flights. In addition, there has been observed biodegradation of materials on the spacecrafts. Hence, in view of future long-duration spaceflights for exploration, it is mandatory to better understand the underlying mechanisms of biocontamination in confined environments in relation with human activities to prevent or mitigate the possible associated risks for the crew and the overall mission. This effort should rely on optimized predictive models rather than solely on empirical information. Micro-organisms can be transmitted to humans in a variety of ways, including person-to-person transmission (e.g. sexual transmission and fecal-oral contact), exposure to food-borne, water-borne, vector-borne and air-borne pathogens, and contact with contaminated objects. Of these transmission modes airborne aerosols are believed to be an important one. Therefore it would be important to be able to accurately simulate the generation, dispersion and deposition airborne microbes under conditions encountered during manned space missions. The rapid development of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) and ever increasing computer power during the past few decades has facilitated numerical methods for solving the indoor air movements and contamination transport. CFD is potentially a promising and often the only method for detailed predictions, but the accuracy of the results is affected by several factors, like the simplifications used in setting up the case, uncertainties in the initial and boundary conditions, and shortcomings of the used models. For high quality predictions the possible error sources should be recognised and the results validated.
Original languageEnglish
PublisherBIOSMHARS project
Number of pages41
Publication statusPublished - 2011
MoE publication typeD4 Published development or research report or study

Fingerprint

flight
computational fluid dynamics
calibration
pathogenicity
indoor air
prediction
health risk
numerical method
biodegradation
boundary condition
human activity
spacecraft
pathogen
microorganism
aerosol
food
air
development model
water
health

Keywords

  • manned spaceflight
  • modelling
  • bioaerosol

Cite this

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abstract = "Microorganisms are constant ecological partners of humans during manned space flight in hermetically sealed environments. Although the microbes are rarely a health risk to the crew members during relatively short duration flights, increased immuno-suppression on the one hand and microgravity induced effects like enhanced pathogenicity of microbes on the other hand may threaten the crew members' health during long distance flights. In addition, there has been observed biodegradation of materials on the spacecrafts. Hence, in view of future long-duration spaceflights for exploration, it is mandatory to better understand the underlying mechanisms of biocontamination in confined environments in relation with human activities to prevent or mitigate the possible associated risks for the crew and the overall mission. This effort should rely on optimized predictive models rather than solely on empirical information. Micro-organisms can be transmitted to humans in a variety of ways, including person-to-person transmission (e.g. sexual transmission and fecal-oral contact), exposure to food-borne, water-borne, vector-borne and air-borne pathogens, and contact with contaminated objects. Of these transmission modes airborne aerosols are believed to be an important one. Therefore it would be important to be able to accurately simulate the generation, dispersion and deposition airborne microbes under conditions encountered during manned space missions. The rapid development of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) and ever increasing computer power during the past few decades has facilitated numerical methods for solving the indoor air movements and contamination transport. CFD is potentially a promising and often the only method for detailed predictions, but the accuracy of the results is affected by several factors, like the simplifications used in setting up the case, uncertainties in the initial and boundary conditions, and shortcomings of the used models. For high quality predictions the possible error sources should be recognised and the results validated.",
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BIOSMHARS: WP4 Model development and calibration - Requirements of the model : Deliverable 4.1. / Kulmala, Ilpo; Kokkonen, Eero.

BIOSMHARS project, 2011. 41 p.

Research output: Book/ReportReport

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AU - Kokkonen, Eero

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N2 - Microorganisms are constant ecological partners of humans during manned space flight in hermetically sealed environments. Although the microbes are rarely a health risk to the crew members during relatively short duration flights, increased immuno-suppression on the one hand and microgravity induced effects like enhanced pathogenicity of microbes on the other hand may threaten the crew members' health during long distance flights. In addition, there has been observed biodegradation of materials on the spacecrafts. Hence, in view of future long-duration spaceflights for exploration, it is mandatory to better understand the underlying mechanisms of biocontamination in confined environments in relation with human activities to prevent or mitigate the possible associated risks for the crew and the overall mission. This effort should rely on optimized predictive models rather than solely on empirical information. Micro-organisms can be transmitted to humans in a variety of ways, including person-to-person transmission (e.g. sexual transmission and fecal-oral contact), exposure to food-borne, water-borne, vector-borne and air-borne pathogens, and contact with contaminated objects. Of these transmission modes airborne aerosols are believed to be an important one. Therefore it would be important to be able to accurately simulate the generation, dispersion and deposition airborne microbes under conditions encountered during manned space missions. The rapid development of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) and ever increasing computer power during the past few decades has facilitated numerical methods for solving the indoor air movements and contamination transport. CFD is potentially a promising and often the only method for detailed predictions, but the accuracy of the results is affected by several factors, like the simplifications used in setting up the case, uncertainties in the initial and boundary conditions, and shortcomings of the used models. For high quality predictions the possible error sources should be recognised and the results validated.

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