Response surface methodology was applied to study the effects of fermentation on the levels of phytochemicals (folates, phenolic compounds, alkylresorcinols) and on the solubilization of pentosans in rye bran from native and peeled grains. Furthermore, the microbial composition of the brans before and after fermentation was studied. Peeling reduced the microbial load and lower microbial counts were detected in the fermentation experiments carried out with the bran from peeled grains. High temperature and long fermentation time favoured the growth of indigenous lactic acid bacteria (LAB), and a diverse microbial community was detected. The brans contained low levels of aerobic spore-forming bacteria, but their number was not increased during the fermentations. Fermentation of both brans increased the levels of folates, easily extractable total phenolics and free ferulic acid. During fermentation of bran from native grains, the levels of alkylresorcinols slightly increased but during fermentation of bran from peeled grains they decreased. Significant increase in soluble pentosans was established in both types of rye bran fermentations. Enhanced bioactivity and solubilization of pentosans with limited microbial growth were obtained after 12–14 h fermentation at 25 °C. The results suggest that fermentation is a potential bioprocessing technology for improved technological properties and bioactivity of rye bran.
- Rye bioactivity
- Sourdough fermentation