Bromine as an ash forming element in a fluidised bed boiler combusting solid recovered fuel

Pasi Vainikka (Corresponding Author), S. Enestam, J. Silvennoinen, R. Taipale, P. Yrjas, A. Frantsi, J. Hannula, M. Hupa

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

35 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Plastic materials are the main sources of chlorine in solid recovered fuels (SRF). Chlorine is attributed to be the main initiator of slagging, fouling and corrosion in biomass and waste combustion as it lowers the melting point of ash forming matter and reacts chemically with the heat transfer surface steels. SRF may also contain sources of bromine in the form of brominated flame retardants (BFRs) applied in many plastics and textiles. Results presented in this paper from an experimental campaign at an 80 MWth bubbling fluidised bed (BFB) boiler show that bromine is behaving in a similar manner as chlorine: bromine was found at the corrosion front in boiler membrane wall tubes, and as water soluble salts in aerosol samples collected from the furnace and electrostatic precipitator (ESP) ash. It is evident from these results and the data in the literature that most of the salts of bromine are, by both their fate and physical and chemical properties, similar to those of chlorine. It can be concluded that it if there is a source of bromine in the fuel corrosive high vapour pressure bromides can be formed analogously to chlorides.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1101-1112
Number of pages12
JournalFuel
Volume90
Issue number3
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2011
MoE publication typeA1 Journal article-refereed

Fingerprint

Ashes
Bromine
Chlorine
Boilers
Flame Retardants
Corrosion
Plastics
Caustics
Electrostatic precipitators
Saline water
Steel
Flame retardants
Fouling
Aerosols
Vapor pressure
Bromides
Chemical properties
Melting point
Chlorides
Textiles

Keywords

  • Bromine
  • chlorine
  • corrosion
  • aerosols
  • solid recovered fuel

Cite this

Vainikka, P., Enestam, S., Silvennoinen, J., Taipale, R., Yrjas, P., Frantsi, A., ... Hupa, M. (2011). Bromine as an ash forming element in a fluidised bed boiler combusting solid recovered fuel. Fuel, 90(3), 1101-1112. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fuel.2010.11.032
Vainikka, Pasi ; Enestam, S. ; Silvennoinen, J. ; Taipale, R. ; Yrjas, P. ; Frantsi, A. ; Hannula, J. ; Hupa, M. / Bromine as an ash forming element in a fluidised bed boiler combusting solid recovered fuel. In: Fuel. 2011 ; Vol. 90, No. 3. pp. 1101-1112.
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abstract = "Plastic materials are the main sources of chlorine in solid recovered fuels (SRF). Chlorine is attributed to be the main initiator of slagging, fouling and corrosion in biomass and waste combustion as it lowers the melting point of ash forming matter and reacts chemically with the heat transfer surface steels. SRF may also contain sources of bromine in the form of brominated flame retardants (BFRs) applied in many plastics and textiles. Results presented in this paper from an experimental campaign at an 80 MWth bubbling fluidised bed (BFB) boiler show that bromine is behaving in a similar manner as chlorine: bromine was found at the corrosion front in boiler membrane wall tubes, and as water soluble salts in aerosol samples collected from the furnace and electrostatic precipitator (ESP) ash. It is evident from these results and the data in the literature that most of the salts of bromine are, by both their fate and physical and chemical properties, similar to those of chlorine. It can be concluded that it if there is a source of bromine in the fuel corrosive high vapour pressure bromides can be formed analogously to chlorides.",
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Vainikka, P, Enestam, S, Silvennoinen, J, Taipale, R, Yrjas, P, Frantsi, A, Hannula, J & Hupa, M 2011, 'Bromine as an ash forming element in a fluidised bed boiler combusting solid recovered fuel', Fuel, vol. 90, no. 3, pp. 1101-1112. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fuel.2010.11.032

Bromine as an ash forming element in a fluidised bed boiler combusting solid recovered fuel. / Vainikka, Pasi (Corresponding Author); Enestam, S.; Silvennoinen, J.; Taipale, R.; Yrjas, P.; Frantsi, A.; Hannula, J.; Hupa, M.

In: Fuel, Vol. 90, No. 3, 2011, p. 1101-1112.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

TY - JOUR

T1 - Bromine as an ash forming element in a fluidised bed boiler combusting solid recovered fuel

AU - Vainikka, Pasi

AU - Enestam, S.

AU - Silvennoinen, J.

AU - Taipale, R.

AU - Yrjas, P.

AU - Frantsi, A.

AU - Hannula, J.

AU - Hupa, M.

PY - 2011

Y1 - 2011

N2 - Plastic materials are the main sources of chlorine in solid recovered fuels (SRF). Chlorine is attributed to be the main initiator of slagging, fouling and corrosion in biomass and waste combustion as it lowers the melting point of ash forming matter and reacts chemically with the heat transfer surface steels. SRF may also contain sources of bromine in the form of brominated flame retardants (BFRs) applied in many plastics and textiles. Results presented in this paper from an experimental campaign at an 80 MWth bubbling fluidised bed (BFB) boiler show that bromine is behaving in a similar manner as chlorine: bromine was found at the corrosion front in boiler membrane wall tubes, and as water soluble salts in aerosol samples collected from the furnace and electrostatic precipitator (ESP) ash. It is evident from these results and the data in the literature that most of the salts of bromine are, by both their fate and physical and chemical properties, similar to those of chlorine. It can be concluded that it if there is a source of bromine in the fuel corrosive high vapour pressure bromides can be formed analogously to chlorides.

AB - Plastic materials are the main sources of chlorine in solid recovered fuels (SRF). Chlorine is attributed to be the main initiator of slagging, fouling and corrosion in biomass and waste combustion as it lowers the melting point of ash forming matter and reacts chemically with the heat transfer surface steels. SRF may also contain sources of bromine in the form of brominated flame retardants (BFRs) applied in many plastics and textiles. Results presented in this paper from an experimental campaign at an 80 MWth bubbling fluidised bed (BFB) boiler show that bromine is behaving in a similar manner as chlorine: bromine was found at the corrosion front in boiler membrane wall tubes, and as water soluble salts in aerosol samples collected from the furnace and electrostatic precipitator (ESP) ash. It is evident from these results and the data in the literature that most of the salts of bromine are, by both their fate and physical and chemical properties, similar to those of chlorine. It can be concluded that it if there is a source of bromine in the fuel corrosive high vapour pressure bromides can be formed analogously to chlorides.

KW - Bromine

KW - chlorine

KW - corrosion

KW - aerosols

KW - solid recovered fuel

U2 - 10.1016/j.fuel.2010.11.032

DO - 10.1016/j.fuel.2010.11.032

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JO - Fuel

JF - Fuel

SN - 0016-2361

IS - 3

ER -

Vainikka P, Enestam S, Silvennoinen J, Taipale R, Yrjas P, Frantsi A et al. Bromine as an ash forming element in a fluidised bed boiler combusting solid recovered fuel. Fuel. 2011;90(3):1101-1112. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fuel.2010.11.032