Helsinki Region Transport, Neste Oil, Proventia Emission Control and VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland carried out a 3.5 year PPP venture "OPTIBIO" to demonstrate the use of paraffinic renewable diesel (hydrotreated vegetable oil HVO) in city buses. The fleet test in Metropolitan Helsinki involving some 300 buses is the largest one in the world to demonstrate this new fuel. The fuels were a 30 % blend of renewable diesel and 100 % renewable diesel. This paper describes the overall set-up of the project, gives an overview of the emission results as well as presents experience from the field.
- Paraffinic renewable diesel
- bus fleet operation
- fuel performance
Mäkinen, R., Nylund, N-O., Erkkilä, K., Saikkonen, P., & Amberla, A. (2011). Bus fleet operation on renewable paraffinic diesel fuel. SAE Technical Paper Series, (2011-01-1965). https://doi.org/10.4271/2011-01-1965