Business and operator models for MaaS: MAASiFiE Deliverable Nr 3

David König, Jenni Eckhardt, Aki Aapaoja, Jana Sochor, MariAnne Karlsson

Research output: Book/ReportReport


The transnational research programme "Call 2014: Mobility and ITS" was launched by the Conference of European Directors of Roads (CEDR). Funded within that program, Mobility as a Service for Linking Europe (MAASiFiE) is a two-year project that investigates the prerequisites for organizing user-oriented and ecological mobility services in order to provide consumers with flexible, efficient and user-friendly services covering multiple modes of transport on a one-stop-shop principle. Megatrends like changing demographics in terms of population growth, ageing of population, new population requirements of millennials, and ICT technology transformation, play a major role enabling the evolvement of new mobility services. Mobility service concepts are changing in the direction of combining and implementing new business models, enabling the development of innovative services and products in mobility markets. With this respect, Deliverable 3 as part of Work Package (WP) 3 of the MAASiFiE project concentrates on the identification of new business and operator models providing an insight into the new transport paradigm of Mobility-as-a-Service (MaaS). Based on a state-ofthe-art survey covering interviews with experts, an online questionnaire, case examples of MaaS services and a literature review, a more thorough understanding of how transportrelated stakeholders perceive and interact with the topic of MaaS is gained. Thus, an elaboration of responsibilities/roles, business models, related value chains and operator models in the context of MaaS is enabled and results are provided in this document. As a common point of reference, the consortium has agreed upon the following definition of MaaS: Multimodal and sustainable mobility services addressing customers' transport needs by integrating planning and payment on a one-stop-shop principle. Mobility services are expected to increase the use of public transport and ride sharing and to provide the means for rationalising passenger transport and wherever possible freight transport as well as identified by the state-of-the-art survey within Deliverable 3. In addition, available freight transport and logistic operations are analysed wherever similar characteristics to MaaS-related passenger applications are identified. Overall, the state-ofthe-art survey results focusing on international MaaS concepts have shown that there currently exist various smaller MaaS-pilots covering different geographical service areas, including for instance city, rural and/or regional areas. Very few larger MaaS services have been established with a wider geographical coverage, including national and international service coverage. Based on different MaaS service areas, different aims and requirements for implementing MaaS concepts arise. While for instance, urban areas focus largely on the reduction of private car usage, congestion and transport-related emissions, rural areas aim at promoting higher efficiency and utilization rates by emphasizing demand driven transport services. National and international MaaS services focus rather on providing combined all-inone packages including for instance long-haul transport, accommodation, event and booking services. Identified value chains of MaaS services illustrate changes of roles and responsibilities in the organisation of transport of people and goods. In this respect, changes in value networks and related organisational requirements are derived and applied to show different combinations of MaaS services. Basically four MaaS operator models were identified: Reseller, Integrator, Public transport operator and PPP models. Based on service combination characteristics, it could be concluded that the commercial Reseller model may best fit travel agencies and therefore national and international traveling. The Public transport (PT) operator model could be mainly used in cities, where comprehensive PT already exists. The PPP model may be preferred for rural areas, as public actors have an interest in increasing efficiency of subsidized transportation. The commercial Integrator model would probably fit well in both urban and suburban areas and national/international MaaS; thus it could be considered the most versatile and flexible model. However, as MaaS is continuously developing, and can be implemented in various ways, the presented models and categorizations should be read and interpreted as a current understanding of an emerging phenomenon.
Original languageEnglish
PublisherConference of European Directors of Roads (CEDR)
Number of pages71
Publication statusPublished - 2016
MoE publication typeD4 Published development or research report or study


  • business models
  • operators models
  • mobility
  • MaaS
  • Mobility as a service


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