Natural resource and climate change pressures are becoming increasingly urgent and businesses need to adapt their way of generating social, environmental and economic value, i.e. generating sustainable value. This necessitates a clear focus on developing new technologies, products, services and business models that contribute to sustainable value for both established businesses and new ventures. Experimentation can produce learning about pressing sustainability challenges to generate evidence-based actionable knowledge (Caniglia et al., 2017). While experimentation has been the topic of transitions research and policymaking involving different actors, such as citizens, business, science, NGOs and governments (e.g. Hildén et al., 2017; Sengers et al., 2016), this Special Issue (SI) focuses on the role of business in conducting experimentation for sustainability, referred to as Business Experimentation for Sustainability (BES). The purpose of BES is to learn about aspects of novel products, services and ways of sustainable value generation with limited risks and resources (Antikainen et al., 2017; Weissbrod and Bocken, 2017).