Calculation of slag windows in steelmaking

Matti Liukkonen

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapter or book articleProfessional


The presence of non-metallic elements in steel and alloy melts incorporate a number of effects, for which it is necessary to control the multicomponent chemistry in ladle processing as well as in casting. The non-metallic elements appear either as processing elements (oxygen, nitrogen) or they are deliberately added to the melt to improve the final product quality (e.g. sulphur to improve steel machinability). The formation of inclusions in the melts is then a process, where these non-metallic impurities will be reacting with various metallic components of the melt. In steels, different oxide nitride or sulphide based inclusions are characteristic.
Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationAdvanced Gibbs Energy Methods for Functional Materials and Processes
Subtitle of host publicationChemSheet 1999-2009
Place of PublicationEspoo
PublisherVTT Technical Research Centre of Finland
ISBN (Electronic)978-951-38-7331-8
ISBN (Print)978-951-38-7330-1
Publication statusPublished - 2009
MoE publication typeNot Eligible

Publication series

SeriesVTT Tiedotteita - Research Notes


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