Calibration of cryogenic amplification chains using normal-metal-insulator-superconductor junctions

E. Hyyppä, M. Jenei (Corresponding Author), S. Masuda, V. Sevriuk, K. Y. Tan, M. Silveri, J. Goetz, Meeri Partanen, R. E. Lake, Leif Grönberg, M. Möttönen

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12 Citations (Scopus)


Various applications of quantum devices call for an accurate calibration of cryogenic amplification chains. To this end, we present an experimentally feasible calibration scheme and use it to accurately measure the total gain and noise temperature of an amplification chain by employing normal-metal-insulator-superconductor (NIS) junctions. Our method is based on the radiation emitted by inelastic electron tunneling across voltage-biased NIS junctions. We derive an analytical expression that relates the generated power to the applied bias voltage which is the only control parameter of the device. After the setup has been characterized using a standard voltage reflection measurement, the total gain and the noise temperature are extracted by fitting the analytical expression to the microwave power measured at the output of the amplification chain. The 1σ uncertainty of the total gain of 51.84 dB appears to be of the order of 0.10 dB.

Original languageEnglish
Article number192603
JournalApplied Physics Letters
Issue number19
Publication statusPublished - 17 May 2019
MoE publication typeA1 Journal article-refereed


This project received funding from the European Union's Horizon 2020 Research and Innovation Programme under the Marie Skodowska-Curie Grant Agreement No. 795159 and under the European Research Council Consolidator Grant No. 681311 (QUESS), from the Academy of Finland Centre of Excellence in Quantum Technology Grant Nos. 312300 and 305237, from JST ERATO Grant No. JPMJER1601, from JSPS KAKENHI Grant No. 18K03486, and from the Vilho, Yrjö and Kalle Väisälä Foundation.


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