Carbon fibres from regenerated cellulose fibre precursors

Pirjo Heikkilä, Kyösti Valta, Marianna Vehviläinen, Taina Kamppuri, Olli Orell, Markus Kakkonen, Antti Pasanen, Mari Honkanen, Minnamari Vippola, Jyrki Vuorinen, Ali Harlin

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference article in proceedingsScientific

Abstract

Cellulose was first precursor fibre material used for production of carbon fibres. It has been in many application replaced with polyacrylonitrile (PAN) and isotropic pitch, especially in high modulus applications. However, cellulose and more precisely viscose (rayon), has still remained some markets due to beneficial properties including good thermal stability of resulted fibres, and low price of raw material and precursor fibre production compared to PAN. Additional attractive feature is its renewability and bio-based origin. We have studied the use of regenerated cellulosic fibres for production of carbon fibres. We used wet-spun non-viscose fibres from enzymatically treated dissolved cellulose, so called Biocelsol fibres, and nitrogen containing cellulose carbamate. We studied the use of various chemical agents, (NH4)2HPO4, H2SO4, and NH4Cl, in order to increase low carbon yield and produced carbon fibres and activated carbon fibres and nonwovens. In this presentation we review work carried out and results obtained within this study. In preliminary trials we studied the effect of different impregnation agents on carbon yield. Obtained carbon yields in these un-optimized cases were 14 -21 %, which was significantly higher than of non-treated reference (10%). Best carbon yield was obtained with (NH4)2HPO4, which was selected for sample preparation. We produced both carbon fibres with tensioning during carbonization as well as CO2 activated carbon fibres. Strength of the obtained carbon fibre samples was not as good as needed for load-bearing composite applications, since we were not able to apply sufficient tensioning. With better optimized carbonization process we, however, were able to obtain carbon yield of above 30 % and fibres showed good conductivity (above 4000 S/m). Possible use of such material could be e.g. conductive filler in non-load-bearing applications. Activated carbon fibres and nonwovens had surface areas above 1000 m2/g and single samples even above 2000 m2/g. Fibre and nonwovens were coherent and they could be used e.g. for water purification and removal of odours from gas flow. This work was carried out in 'Bio-Based Tailored Precursors for Advanced Carbons and Applications' (BioPreCarb) project funded by Tekes - the Finnish Funding Agency for Technology and Innovation, VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland and Tampere University of Technology. Project was aiming to review possibilities to create bio-based carbon business in Finland.
Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationNWBC 2015: The 6th Nordic Wood Biorefinery Conference
PublisherVTT Technical Research Centre of Finland
Pages239-243
ISBN (Print)978-951-38-8352-2, 978-951-38-8353-9
Publication statusPublished - 2015
MoE publication typeB3 Non-refereed article in conference proceedings
Event6th Nordic Wood Biorefinery Conference, NWBC 2015 - Helsinki, Finland
Duration: 20 Oct 201522 Oct 2015

Publication series

NameVTT Technology
PublisherVTT
Number233
ISSN (Print)2242-1211
ISSN (Electronic)2242-122X

Conference

Conference6th Nordic Wood Biorefinery Conference, NWBC 2015
Abbreviated titleNWBC 2015
CountryFinland
CityHelsinki
Period20/10/1522/10/15

Fingerprint

cellulosic fibers
carbon
cellulose
polyacrylonitrile
activated carbon
Finland
rayon
water purification
filling materials
carbon fibers
carbamates
thermal stability
funding
sampling
raw materials
surface area
carbon dioxide
odors
gases
markets

Cite this

Heikkilä, P., Valta, K., Vehviläinen, M., Kamppuri, T., Orell, O., Kakkonen, M., ... Harlin, A. (2015). Carbon fibres from regenerated cellulose fibre precursors. In NWBC 2015: The 6th Nordic Wood Biorefinery Conference (pp. 239-243). VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland. VTT Technology, No. 233
Heikkilä, Pirjo ; Valta, Kyösti ; Vehviläinen, Marianna ; Kamppuri, Taina ; Orell, Olli ; Kakkonen, Markus ; Pasanen, Antti ; Honkanen, Mari ; Vippola, Minnamari ; Vuorinen, Jyrki ; Harlin, Ali. / Carbon fibres from regenerated cellulose fibre precursors. NWBC 2015: The 6th Nordic Wood Biorefinery Conference. VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, 2015. pp. 239-243 (VTT Technology; No. 233).
@inproceedings{355f6a9466ee4144a13ae22c2f02311f,
title = "Carbon fibres from regenerated cellulose fibre precursors",
abstract = "Cellulose was first precursor fibre material used for production of carbon fibres. It has been in many application replaced with polyacrylonitrile (PAN) and isotropic pitch, especially in high modulus applications. However, cellulose and more precisely viscose (rayon), has still remained some markets due to beneficial properties including good thermal stability of resulted fibres, and low price of raw material and precursor fibre production compared to PAN. Additional attractive feature is its renewability and bio-based origin. We have studied the use of regenerated cellulosic fibres for production of carbon fibres. We used wet-spun non-viscose fibres from enzymatically treated dissolved cellulose, so called Biocelsol fibres, and nitrogen containing cellulose carbamate. We studied the use of various chemical agents, (NH4)2HPO4, H2SO4, and NH4Cl, in order to increase low carbon yield and produced carbon fibres and activated carbon fibres and nonwovens. In this presentation we review work carried out and results obtained within this study. In preliminary trials we studied the effect of different impregnation agents on carbon yield. Obtained carbon yields in these un-optimized cases were 14 -21 {\%}, which was significantly higher than of non-treated reference (10{\%}). Best carbon yield was obtained with (NH4)2HPO4, which was selected for sample preparation. We produced both carbon fibres with tensioning during carbonization as well as CO2 activated carbon fibres. Strength of the obtained carbon fibre samples was not as good as needed for load-bearing composite applications, since we were not able to apply sufficient tensioning. With better optimized carbonization process we, however, were able to obtain carbon yield of above 30 {\%} and fibres showed good conductivity (above 4000 S/m). Possible use of such material could be e.g. conductive filler in non-load-bearing applications. Activated carbon fibres and nonwovens had surface areas above 1000 m2/g and single samples even above 2000 m2/g. Fibre and nonwovens were coherent and they could be used e.g. for water purification and removal of odours from gas flow. This work was carried out in 'Bio-Based Tailored Precursors for Advanced Carbons and Applications' (BioPreCarb) project funded by Tekes - the Finnish Funding Agency for Technology and Innovation, VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland and Tampere University of Technology. Project was aiming to review possibilities to create bio-based carbon business in Finland.",
author = "Pirjo Heikkil{\"a} and Ky{\"o}sti Valta and Marianna Vehvil{\"a}inen and Taina Kamppuri and Olli Orell and Markus Kakkonen and Antti Pasanen and Mari Honkanen and Minnamari Vippola and Jyrki Vuorinen and Ali Harlin",
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Heikkilä, P, Valta, K, Vehviläinen, M, Kamppuri, T, Orell, O, Kakkonen, M, Pasanen, A, Honkanen, M, Vippola, M, Vuorinen, J & Harlin, A 2015, Carbon fibres from regenerated cellulose fibre precursors. in NWBC 2015: The 6th Nordic Wood Biorefinery Conference. VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, VTT Technology, no. 233, pp. 239-243, 6th Nordic Wood Biorefinery Conference, NWBC 2015, Helsinki, Finland, 20/10/15.

Carbon fibres from regenerated cellulose fibre precursors. / Heikkilä, Pirjo; Valta, Kyösti; Vehviläinen, Marianna; Kamppuri, Taina; Orell, Olli; Kakkonen, Markus; Pasanen, Antti; Honkanen, Mari; Vippola, Minnamari; Vuorinen, Jyrki; Harlin, Ali.

NWBC 2015: The 6th Nordic Wood Biorefinery Conference. VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, 2015. p. 239-243 (VTT Technology; No. 233).

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference article in proceedingsScientific

TY - GEN

T1 - Carbon fibres from regenerated cellulose fibre precursors

AU - Heikkilä, Pirjo

AU - Valta, Kyösti

AU - Vehviläinen, Marianna

AU - Kamppuri, Taina

AU - Orell, Olli

AU - Kakkonen, Markus

AU - Pasanen, Antti

AU - Honkanen, Mari

AU - Vippola, Minnamari

AU - Vuorinen, Jyrki

AU - Harlin, Ali

N1 - LIS: abstract rev. + pub. Project code: 100982

PY - 2015

Y1 - 2015

N2 - Cellulose was first precursor fibre material used for production of carbon fibres. It has been in many application replaced with polyacrylonitrile (PAN) and isotropic pitch, especially in high modulus applications. However, cellulose and more precisely viscose (rayon), has still remained some markets due to beneficial properties including good thermal stability of resulted fibres, and low price of raw material and precursor fibre production compared to PAN. Additional attractive feature is its renewability and bio-based origin. We have studied the use of regenerated cellulosic fibres for production of carbon fibres. We used wet-spun non-viscose fibres from enzymatically treated dissolved cellulose, so called Biocelsol fibres, and nitrogen containing cellulose carbamate. We studied the use of various chemical agents, (NH4)2HPO4, H2SO4, and NH4Cl, in order to increase low carbon yield and produced carbon fibres and activated carbon fibres and nonwovens. In this presentation we review work carried out and results obtained within this study. In preliminary trials we studied the effect of different impregnation agents on carbon yield. Obtained carbon yields in these un-optimized cases were 14 -21 %, which was significantly higher than of non-treated reference (10%). Best carbon yield was obtained with (NH4)2HPO4, which was selected for sample preparation. We produced both carbon fibres with tensioning during carbonization as well as CO2 activated carbon fibres. Strength of the obtained carbon fibre samples was not as good as needed for load-bearing composite applications, since we were not able to apply sufficient tensioning. With better optimized carbonization process we, however, were able to obtain carbon yield of above 30 % and fibres showed good conductivity (above 4000 S/m). Possible use of such material could be e.g. conductive filler in non-load-bearing applications. Activated carbon fibres and nonwovens had surface areas above 1000 m2/g and single samples even above 2000 m2/g. Fibre and nonwovens were coherent and they could be used e.g. for water purification and removal of odours from gas flow. This work was carried out in 'Bio-Based Tailored Precursors for Advanced Carbons and Applications' (BioPreCarb) project funded by Tekes - the Finnish Funding Agency for Technology and Innovation, VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland and Tampere University of Technology. Project was aiming to review possibilities to create bio-based carbon business in Finland.

AB - Cellulose was first precursor fibre material used for production of carbon fibres. It has been in many application replaced with polyacrylonitrile (PAN) and isotropic pitch, especially in high modulus applications. However, cellulose and more precisely viscose (rayon), has still remained some markets due to beneficial properties including good thermal stability of resulted fibres, and low price of raw material and precursor fibre production compared to PAN. Additional attractive feature is its renewability and bio-based origin. We have studied the use of regenerated cellulosic fibres for production of carbon fibres. We used wet-spun non-viscose fibres from enzymatically treated dissolved cellulose, so called Biocelsol fibres, and nitrogen containing cellulose carbamate. We studied the use of various chemical agents, (NH4)2HPO4, H2SO4, and NH4Cl, in order to increase low carbon yield and produced carbon fibres and activated carbon fibres and nonwovens. In this presentation we review work carried out and results obtained within this study. In preliminary trials we studied the effect of different impregnation agents on carbon yield. Obtained carbon yields in these un-optimized cases were 14 -21 %, which was significantly higher than of non-treated reference (10%). Best carbon yield was obtained with (NH4)2HPO4, which was selected for sample preparation. We produced both carbon fibres with tensioning during carbonization as well as CO2 activated carbon fibres. Strength of the obtained carbon fibre samples was not as good as needed for load-bearing composite applications, since we were not able to apply sufficient tensioning. With better optimized carbonization process we, however, were able to obtain carbon yield of above 30 % and fibres showed good conductivity (above 4000 S/m). Possible use of such material could be e.g. conductive filler in non-load-bearing applications. Activated carbon fibres and nonwovens had surface areas above 1000 m2/g and single samples even above 2000 m2/g. Fibre and nonwovens were coherent and they could be used e.g. for water purification and removal of odours from gas flow. This work was carried out in 'Bio-Based Tailored Precursors for Advanced Carbons and Applications' (BioPreCarb) project funded by Tekes - the Finnish Funding Agency for Technology and Innovation, VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland and Tampere University of Technology. Project was aiming to review possibilities to create bio-based carbon business in Finland.

M3 - Conference article in proceedings

SN - 978-951-38-8352-2

SN - 978-951-38-8353-9

T3 - VTT Technology

SP - 239

EP - 243

BT - NWBC 2015: The 6th Nordic Wood Biorefinery Conference

PB - VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland

ER -

Heikkilä P, Valta K, Vehviläinen M, Kamppuri T, Orell O, Kakkonen M et al. Carbon fibres from regenerated cellulose fibre precursors. In NWBC 2015: The 6th Nordic Wood Biorefinery Conference. VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland. 2015. p. 239-243. (VTT Technology; No. 233).