Cascaded superconducting junction refrigerators: Optimization and performance limits

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We demonstrate highly transparent silicon-vanadium and silicon-aluminum tunnel junctions with relatively low sub-gap leakage current and discuss how a trade-off typically encountered between transparency and leakage affects their refrigeration performance. We theoretically investigate cascaded superconducting tunnel junction refrigerators with two or more refrigeration stages. In particular, we develop an approximate method that takes into account self-heating effects but still allows us to optimize the cascade a single stage at a time. We design a cascade consisting of energy-efficient refrigeration stages, which makes cooling of, e.g., quantum devices from above 1 K to below 100 mK a realistic experimental target.
Original languageEnglish
Article number052603
Number of pages5
JournalApplied Physics Letters
Issue number5
Publication statusPublished - 2 Aug 2021
MoE publication typeA1 Journal article-refereed


This research was funded by the European Union’s Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme under Grant Agreement No. 766853 EFINED (, the Academy of Finland through projects ETHEC, UQS, and QuMOS (Nos. 322580, 310909, and 288907), and the Centre of Excellence program Nos. 336817 and 312294.


  • cond-mat.supr-con


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