Catalytic effect of Ca and K on CO2 gasification of spruce wood char

M. Perander (Corresponding Author), N. DeMartini, A. Brink, J. Kramb, O. Karlström, J. Hemming, Antero Moilanen, J. Konttinen, M. Hupa

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

59 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Gasification is one route to produce chemicals and liquid fuels from biomass. The gasification of the char is catalyzed by alkali and alkaline earth metals in the biomass. In this work the catalytic effect of calcium (Ca) and potassium (K) on CO2 gasification of spruce wood was studied using a thermo gravimetric analyzer (TGA). The ash-forming elements were first removed from the wood using an acid leaching method. Then, various concentrations of K and Ca were absorbed to the wood by ion-exchange to carboxylic and phenolic groups, impregnation of K2CO3 or physically mixing of CaC2O4. The prepared spruce samples were placed in a mesh holder and gasified in the TGA at 850 °C in 100% CO2. The results demonstrate that the gasification rate of the char increased linearly with an increase in the concentration of Ca or K. Crystalline CaC2O4 distributed only at the surface of the wood particles resulted in low catalytic activity. The catalytic activity of Ca was higher than K in the beginning of char gasification but the catalytic effect of Ca decreased earlier than the catalytic effect of potassium. Further, the char structure was investigated by SEM-EDX. The SEM analysis from interrupted gasification experiments showed the formation of CaCO3 and K2CO3 layer on the char surface. By adding corresponding levels of Ca and K as the original spruce to the acid washed sample, a similar gasification reactivity was obtained at 850 °C.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)464-472
JournalFuel
Volume150
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2015
MoE publication typeA1 Journal article-refereed

Fingerprint

Gasification
Calcium
Wood
Ashes
Potassium
Catalyst activity
Biomass
Alkaline Earth Metals
Alkaline earth metals
Scanning electron microscopy
Acids
Liquid fuels
Alkalies
Impregnation
Leaching
Energy dispersive spectroscopy
Ion exchange
Crystalline materials
Experiments

Keywords

  • gasification
  • char reactivity
  • biomass
  • potassium
  • calcium
  • CO2

Cite this

Perander, M., DeMartini, N., Brink, A., Kramb, J., Karlström, O., Hemming, J., ... Hupa, M. (2015). Catalytic effect of Ca and K on CO2 gasification of spruce wood char. Fuel, 150, 464-472. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fuel.2015.02.062
Perander, M. ; DeMartini, N. ; Brink, A. ; Kramb, J. ; Karlström, O. ; Hemming, J. ; Moilanen, Antero ; Konttinen, J. ; Hupa, M. / Catalytic effect of Ca and K on CO2 gasification of spruce wood char. In: Fuel. 2015 ; Vol. 150. pp. 464-472.
@article{80a4b812ca4e478383eb10c51a475c97,
title = "Catalytic effect of Ca and K on CO2 gasification of spruce wood char",
abstract = "Gasification is one route to produce chemicals and liquid fuels from biomass. The gasification of the char is catalyzed by alkali and alkaline earth metals in the biomass. In this work the catalytic effect of calcium (Ca) and potassium (K) on CO2 gasification of spruce wood was studied using a thermo gravimetric analyzer (TGA). The ash-forming elements were first removed from the wood using an acid leaching method. Then, various concentrations of K and Ca were absorbed to the wood by ion-exchange to carboxylic and phenolic groups, impregnation of K2CO3 or physically mixing of CaC2O4. The prepared spruce samples were placed in a mesh holder and gasified in the TGA at 850 °C in 100{\%} CO2. The results demonstrate that the gasification rate of the char increased linearly with an increase in the concentration of Ca or K. Crystalline CaC2O4 distributed only at the surface of the wood particles resulted in low catalytic activity. The catalytic activity of Ca was higher than K in the beginning of char gasification but the catalytic effect of Ca decreased earlier than the catalytic effect of potassium. Further, the char structure was investigated by SEM-EDX. The SEM analysis from interrupted gasification experiments showed the formation of CaCO3 and K2CO3 layer on the char surface. By adding corresponding levels of Ca and K as the original spruce to the acid washed sample, a similar gasification reactivity was obtained at 850 °C.",
keywords = "gasification, char reactivity, biomass, potassium, calcium, CO2",
author = "M. Perander and N. DeMartini and A. Brink and J. Kramb and O. Karlstr{\"o}m and J. Hemming and Antero Moilanen and J. Konttinen and M. Hupa",
year = "2015",
doi = "10.1016/j.fuel.2015.02.062",
language = "English",
volume = "150",
pages = "464--472",
journal = "Fuel",
issn = "0016-2361",
publisher = "Elsevier",

}

Perander, M, DeMartini, N, Brink, A, Kramb, J, Karlström, O, Hemming, J, Moilanen, A, Konttinen, J & Hupa, M 2015, 'Catalytic effect of Ca and K on CO2 gasification of spruce wood char', Fuel, vol. 150, pp. 464-472. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fuel.2015.02.062

Catalytic effect of Ca and K on CO2 gasification of spruce wood char. / Perander, M. (Corresponding Author); DeMartini, N.; Brink, A.; Kramb, J.; Karlström, O.; Hemming, J.; Moilanen, Antero; Konttinen, J.; Hupa, M.

In: Fuel, Vol. 150, 2015, p. 464-472.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

TY - JOUR

T1 - Catalytic effect of Ca and K on CO2 gasification of spruce wood char

AU - Perander, M.

AU - DeMartini, N.

AU - Brink, A.

AU - Kramb, J.

AU - Karlström, O.

AU - Hemming, J.

AU - Moilanen, Antero

AU - Konttinen, J.

AU - Hupa, M.

PY - 2015

Y1 - 2015

N2 - Gasification is one route to produce chemicals and liquid fuels from biomass. The gasification of the char is catalyzed by alkali and alkaline earth metals in the biomass. In this work the catalytic effect of calcium (Ca) and potassium (K) on CO2 gasification of spruce wood was studied using a thermo gravimetric analyzer (TGA). The ash-forming elements were first removed from the wood using an acid leaching method. Then, various concentrations of K and Ca were absorbed to the wood by ion-exchange to carboxylic and phenolic groups, impregnation of K2CO3 or physically mixing of CaC2O4. The prepared spruce samples were placed in a mesh holder and gasified in the TGA at 850 °C in 100% CO2. The results demonstrate that the gasification rate of the char increased linearly with an increase in the concentration of Ca or K. Crystalline CaC2O4 distributed only at the surface of the wood particles resulted in low catalytic activity. The catalytic activity of Ca was higher than K in the beginning of char gasification but the catalytic effect of Ca decreased earlier than the catalytic effect of potassium. Further, the char structure was investigated by SEM-EDX. The SEM analysis from interrupted gasification experiments showed the formation of CaCO3 and K2CO3 layer on the char surface. By adding corresponding levels of Ca and K as the original spruce to the acid washed sample, a similar gasification reactivity was obtained at 850 °C.

AB - Gasification is one route to produce chemicals and liquid fuels from biomass. The gasification of the char is catalyzed by alkali and alkaline earth metals in the biomass. In this work the catalytic effect of calcium (Ca) and potassium (K) on CO2 gasification of spruce wood was studied using a thermo gravimetric analyzer (TGA). The ash-forming elements were first removed from the wood using an acid leaching method. Then, various concentrations of K and Ca were absorbed to the wood by ion-exchange to carboxylic and phenolic groups, impregnation of K2CO3 or physically mixing of CaC2O4. The prepared spruce samples were placed in a mesh holder and gasified in the TGA at 850 °C in 100% CO2. The results demonstrate that the gasification rate of the char increased linearly with an increase in the concentration of Ca or K. Crystalline CaC2O4 distributed only at the surface of the wood particles resulted in low catalytic activity. The catalytic activity of Ca was higher than K in the beginning of char gasification but the catalytic effect of Ca decreased earlier than the catalytic effect of potassium. Further, the char structure was investigated by SEM-EDX. The SEM analysis from interrupted gasification experiments showed the formation of CaCO3 and K2CO3 layer on the char surface. By adding corresponding levels of Ca and K as the original spruce to the acid washed sample, a similar gasification reactivity was obtained at 850 °C.

KW - gasification

KW - char reactivity

KW - biomass

KW - potassium

KW - calcium

KW - CO2

U2 - 10.1016/j.fuel.2015.02.062

DO - 10.1016/j.fuel.2015.02.062

M3 - Article

VL - 150

SP - 464

EP - 472

JO - Fuel

JF - Fuel

SN - 0016-2361

ER -

Perander M, DeMartini N, Brink A, Kramb J, Karlström O, Hemming J et al. Catalytic effect of Ca and K on CO2 gasification of spruce wood char. Fuel. 2015;150:464-472. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fuel.2015.02.062