Expression of CD44, a transmembrane hyaluronan-binding glycoprotein, is variably considered to have prognostic significance for different cancers, including oral squamous cell carcinoma. Although unclear at present, tissue-specific expression of particular isoforms of CD44 might underlie the different outcomes in currently available studies. We mined public transcriptomics databases for gene expression data on CD44, and analyzed normal, immortalized and tumour-derived human cell lines for splice variants of CD44 at both the transcript and protein levels. Bioinformatics readouts, from a total of more than 15,000 analyses, implied an increased CD44 expression in head and neck cancer, including increased expression levels relative to many normal and tumor tissue types. Also, meta-analysis of over 260 cell lines and over 4,000 tissue specimens of diverse origins indicated lower CD44 expression levels in cell lines compared to tissue. With minor exceptions, reverse transcribed polymerase chain reaction identified expression of the four main isoforms of CD44 in normal oral keratinocytes, transformed lines termed DT and HaCaT, and a series of paired primary and metastasis-derived cell lines from oral or pharyngeal carcinomas termed HN4/HN12, HN22/HN8 and HN30/HN31. Immunocytochemistry, Western blotting and flow cytometric assessments all confirmed the isoform expression pattern at the protein level. Overall, bioinformatic processing of large numbers of global gene expression analyses demonstrated elevated CD44 expression in head and neck cancer relative to other cancer types, and that the application of standard cell culture protocols might decrease CD44 expression. Additionally, the results show that the many variant CD44 exons are not fundamentally deregulated in a diverse range of cultured normal and transformed keratinocyte lines.
Rajarajan, A., Stokes, A., Bloor, B. K., Ceder, R., Desai, H., Grafström, R., & Odell, E. W. (2012). CD44 expression in oro-pharyngeal carcinoma tissues and cell lines. PLoS ONE, 7(1), [e28776]. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0028776