Cereal Grain Structure by Microscopic Analysis

Ulla Holopainen, Mari Raulio

    Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapter or book articleProfessional

    6 Citations (Scopus)


    Microscopy techniques can be utilized in studying the structure of cereal grains, their processing or end products. By stereomicroscope, the appearance of cereal samples can be recorded. For light microscopy, samples are usually fixed, embedded and cut into sections for staining with different dyes in order to visualize various components present in cereals. Less sample preparation is needed for confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM), which enables optical sectioning of the sample. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) gives information on the structure with higher magnification, when high resolution is required. Depending on which structural level is of interest, these techniques can be used in revealing the structural differences between processes, enzymatic treatments, etc. Several examples are presented on the visualization of grain structures and components and their changes due to processing.
    Original languageEnglish
    Title of host publicationImaging Technologies and Data Processing for Food Engineers
    EditorsNesli Sozer
    ISBN (Electronic)978-3-319-24735-9
    ISBN (Print)978-3-319-24733-5
    Publication statusPublished - 2016
    MoE publication typeD2 Article in professional manuals or guides or professional information systems or text book material

    Publication series

    SeriesFood Engineering Series


    • stereomicroscopy
    • light microscopy
    • brightfield microscopy
    • fluorescence microscopy
    • confocal laser scanning microscopy
    • scanning electron microscopy


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