CFD modelling of CaCO3 crystallization fouling on heat transfer surfaces

T.M. Pääkkönen (Corresponding Author), U. Ojaniemi, T. Pättikangas, M. Manninen, E. Muurinen, R.L. Keiski, C.J. Simonson

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

13 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Supersaturation of inversely soluble salts, like calcium carbonate, causes crystallization fouling on heated surfaces of heat exchangers. In this paper, crystallization fouling of calcium carbonate is studied by CFD modelling. Crystallization fouling is modelled in 2D and 3D flat plate geometries, which correspond to an experimental set-up of an idealised heat exchanger. The model is validated with experimental data under various operating conditions and is used to identify the regions where different parameters have the greatest effect on fouling. The CFD model presented in this paper is a novel combination of a fouling model, which includes the surface integration term and the shear stress dependent residence time, and the hydrodynamics and heat transfer modelled by CFD. The crystallization fouling CFD model predicts the experimental mass deposition rate and the linear fouling resistance within the experimental uncertainty in most of the studied conditions. The crystallization fouling CFD model is very sensitive to the heat exchanger surface temperature, but also relatively sensitive to the shear stress. The validated crystallization fouling model may be utilised to study fouling of industrial heat exchangers when the fouling is controlled by the surface integration. If mass transfer controls the crystallization fouling, the mass transport of ions should be included to the model.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)618-630
JournalInternational Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer
Volume97
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2016
MoE publication typeA1 Journal article-refereed

Fingerprint

fouling
charge flow devices
Crystallization
Fouling
Computational fluid dynamics
heat transfer
crystallization
Heat transfer
heat exchangers
Heat exchangers
Calcium Carbonate
calcium carbonates
Calcium carbonate
shear stress
Shear stress
Mass transfer
Supersaturation
flat plates
supersaturation
Deposition rates

Keywords

  • crystallization
  • fouling
  • CFD
  • heat transfer
  • calcium carbonate

Cite this

Pääkkönen, T.M. ; Ojaniemi, U. ; Pättikangas, T. ; Manninen, M. ; Muurinen, E. ; Keiski, R.L. ; Simonson, C.J. / CFD modelling of CaCO3 crystallization fouling on heat transfer surfaces. In: International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer. 2016 ; Vol. 97. pp. 618-630.
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CFD modelling of CaCO3 crystallization fouling on heat transfer surfaces. / Pääkkönen, T.M. (Corresponding Author); Ojaniemi, U.; Pättikangas, T.; Manninen, M.; Muurinen, E.; Keiski, R.L.; Simonson, C.J.

In: International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer, Vol. 97, 2016, p. 618-630.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

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T1 - CFD modelling of CaCO3 crystallization fouling on heat transfer surfaces

AU - Pääkkönen, T.M.

AU - Ojaniemi, U.

AU - Pättikangas, T.

AU - Manninen, M.

AU - Muurinen, E.

AU - Keiski, R.L.

AU - Simonson, C.J.

PY - 2016

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N2 - Supersaturation of inversely soluble salts, like calcium carbonate, causes crystallization fouling on heated surfaces of heat exchangers. In this paper, crystallization fouling of calcium carbonate is studied by CFD modelling. Crystallization fouling is modelled in 2D and 3D flat plate geometries, which correspond to an experimental set-up of an idealised heat exchanger. The model is validated with experimental data under various operating conditions and is used to identify the regions where different parameters have the greatest effect on fouling. The CFD model presented in this paper is a novel combination of a fouling model, which includes the surface integration term and the shear stress dependent residence time, and the hydrodynamics and heat transfer modelled by CFD. The crystallization fouling CFD model predicts the experimental mass deposition rate and the linear fouling resistance within the experimental uncertainty in most of the studied conditions. The crystallization fouling CFD model is very sensitive to the heat exchanger surface temperature, but also relatively sensitive to the shear stress. The validated crystallization fouling model may be utilised to study fouling of industrial heat exchangers when the fouling is controlled by the surface integration. If mass transfer controls the crystallization fouling, the mass transport of ions should be included to the model.

AB - Supersaturation of inversely soluble salts, like calcium carbonate, causes crystallization fouling on heated surfaces of heat exchangers. In this paper, crystallization fouling of calcium carbonate is studied by CFD modelling. Crystallization fouling is modelled in 2D and 3D flat plate geometries, which correspond to an experimental set-up of an idealised heat exchanger. The model is validated with experimental data under various operating conditions and is used to identify the regions where different parameters have the greatest effect on fouling. The CFD model presented in this paper is a novel combination of a fouling model, which includes the surface integration term and the shear stress dependent residence time, and the hydrodynamics and heat transfer modelled by CFD. The crystallization fouling CFD model predicts the experimental mass deposition rate and the linear fouling resistance within the experimental uncertainty in most of the studied conditions. The crystallization fouling CFD model is very sensitive to the heat exchanger surface temperature, but also relatively sensitive to the shear stress. The validated crystallization fouling model may be utilised to study fouling of industrial heat exchangers when the fouling is controlled by the surface integration. If mass transfer controls the crystallization fouling, the mass transport of ions should be included to the model.

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