Characteristics of Hot Water Extracts from the Bark of Cultivated Willow (Salix sp.)

Jinze Dou, Jari Koivisto, Padmakshan Dharshana , Martin Kögler, Chunlin Xu, Stefan Willför, John Ralph, Tapani Vuorinen, Justin K. Mobley

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

35 Citations (Scopus)


Willow bark is a rich source of heterogeneous polyphenolic compounds and a potential feedstock for biorefinery processes aiming at chemicals and fiber production. Here, mild hot water treatment of willow hybrid Karin was studied to find a practical means of isolating its non-cell-wall components for their utilization in a willow biorefinery proposed to aid valorization of the willow biomass. A short aqueous treatment of the bark at 80 °C liberated the extract in >20% yield under unpressurized conditions. The extract was characterized using mainly gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and one- and two-dimensional NMR techniques. Authentic analytes were applied to confirm the identification and quantification of the main components that were picein, (+)-catechin, triandrin, glucose, and fructose. Fructose was converted into 5-hydroxymethylfurfural in an acidic treatment which led to its condensation with the phenolic components and formation of a recalcitrant precipitate that should be avoided. © 2018 American Chemical Society.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)5566–5573
Number of pages8
JournalACS Sustainable Chemistry & Engineering
Issue number4
Publication statusPublished - 2 Apr 2018
MoE publication typeA1 Journal article-refereed


  • (+)-Catechin
  • 5-Hydroxymethylfurfural
  • Fructose
  • Picein
  • Triandrin
  • Willow bark


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