Characterization, modeling, and design for applications of waveguide impedance tuners and Schottky diodes at millimeter wavelengths: Dissertation

Tero Kiuru

    Research output: ThesisDissertationCollection of Articles


    This work contributes to two fields of research at millimeter wavelengths: waveguide impedance tuners and Schottky diodes. Three novel impedance tuning devices for frequencies between 75-220 GHz are presented and new modeling and characterization methods applicable to millimeter-wave and THz Schottky diodes are introduced. In addition, the use of waveguide impedance tuners and Schottky diodes is demonstrated in three different applications. Waveguide tuners are used for dielectric material characterization at 75-110 GHz and in a fundamental frequency mixer diode test platform at 183 GHz. Schottky diodes characterized in this work are used in a novel MMIC frequency tripler for 75-140 GHz and in the aforementioned 183 GHz mixer diode test platform.

    Waveguide impedance tuners are widely used in a variety of applications at millimeter wavelengths, ranging from device matching to load-pull and noise parameter measurements. The three impedance tuners presented in this work are a multiwaveguide-band backshort, waveguide EH-tuner for 140-220 GHz, and a double-stub E-plane tuner for 75-110 GHz. All impedance tuners are based on the dielectric backshort concept, which offers resonance-free operation, low losses, and tuning with higher resolution than is possible with traditional backshorts. For example, at the center frequency of the W-band, 92 GHz, the VSWR of the multiwaveguide-band backshort is larger than 165 for all positions of the backshort and the phase resolution as a function of the backshort movement is 0.0825 (deg)/10 micrometers, which is 10 times more accurate than with a traditional backshort.

    The Schottky diode is the workhorse in almost all room temperature mixer and frequency multiplier applications at 100-3000 GHz. Design of Schottky-based circuits at these frequencies relies on accurate models for the Schottky diode. In this work, a novel method is presented for simultaneous extraction of Schottky diode series resistance and thermal resistance. The method avoids the inaccuracies inherent in the traditional I-V extraction methods caused by the self-heating of the diode, which can result in too small a value for the extracted series resistance. In addition, a quantitative comparison of low-frequency (1 MHz) and microwave frequency (3-10 GHz) capacitance determination techniques is performed for millimeter-wave and THz Schottky diodes.
    Original languageEnglish
    QualificationDoctor Degree
    Awarding Institution
    • Aalto University
    • Räisänen, Antti, Supervisor, External person
    • Mallat, Juha, Advisor, External person
    • Närhi, Tapani, Advisor, External person
    Award date12 Dec 2011
    Place of PublicationEspoo
    Print ISBNs978-952-60-4407-1
    Electronic ISBNs978-952-60-4408-8
    Publication statusPublished - 2011
    MoE publication typeG5 Doctoral dissertation (article)


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