Characterization of aerobic bacterial and fungal microbiota on surfaces of historic Scottish monuments

Maija-Liisa Suihko (Corresponding Author), Hanna-Leena Alakomi, Anna Gorbushina, Irene Fortune, Jürgen Marquardt, Maria Saarela

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

48 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Twenty samples were taken from the inner or outer surfaces of stone monuments of six historic Scottish buildings and ruins. Biofilms developing on mineral substrates were analysed by in situ scanning electron microscopy and cultivation. Various methods were used to characterize the isolates including automated ribotyping, RAPD and sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene for bacteria, and stereomicroscopy and sequencing of the Internal Transcribed Spacers (ITS) for fungi. Most samples contained microbes between 105 and 107 cfu g−1 substrate. Actinobacteria belonging to the genus Streptomyces (17 samples/5 monuments) or Arthrobacter (12/3) and Pseudomonas (9/3) were frequently detected. Most streptomycetes were in terms of their 16S rRNA gene sequence most closely related to S. microflavus (10/3) or to the undescribed species S. “vulgaris” (8/3). Indoor and outdoor biofilms exhibited significant differences in their microbiota, as shown by both microscopy and isolation studies. Pigmented coccoid Arthrobacter species were typical for the outdoor samples, whereas Pseudomonas species were common in the indoor samples. Based on the low phylogenetic relationship to a known species (type strain), potential novel pigmented bacterial species belonging to the genera Arthrobacter, Brevundimonas, Cryseobacterium, Deinococcus and Dyadobacter were detected from the outdoor samples and to Pseudomonas from the indoor samples. Hyaline fungal species of Acremonium (10/4) mainly occurred in indoor samples, whereas pigmented species of Cladosporium (8/3), Penicillium (6/3) and Phialophora (6/2) were found outdoors. Using in situ microscopy diatom algae were also detected.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)494-508
JournalSystematic and Applied Microbiology
Volume30
Issue number6
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2007
MoE publication typeA1 Journal article-refereed

Fingerprint

Arthrobacter
monument
Pseudomonas
Biofilms
rRNA Genes
Microscopy
Phialophora
Deinococcus
Acremonium
Ribotyping
Cladosporium
Diatoms
Hyalin
Actinobacteria
Penicillium
Microbiota
Streptomyces
sampling
Electron Scanning Microscopy
Minerals

Keywords

  • Historic monuments
  • biofilm
  • Actinobacteria
  • Streptomyces
  • Arthrobacter
  • Fungi
  • Cladosporium
  • Phialophora
  • Protective pigmentation

Cite this

Suihko, Maija-Liisa ; Alakomi, Hanna-Leena ; Gorbushina, Anna ; Fortune, Irene ; Marquardt, Jürgen ; Saarela, Maria. / Characterization of aerobic bacterial and fungal microbiota on surfaces of historic Scottish monuments. In: Systematic and Applied Microbiology. 2007 ; Vol. 30, No. 6. pp. 494-508.
@article{70650de40c144b508060b6d9e25a575d,
title = "Characterization of aerobic bacterial and fungal microbiota on surfaces of historic Scottish monuments",
abstract = "Twenty samples were taken from the inner or outer surfaces of stone monuments of six historic Scottish buildings and ruins. Biofilms developing on mineral substrates were analysed by in situ scanning electron microscopy and cultivation. Various methods were used to characterize the isolates including automated ribotyping, RAPD and sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene for bacteria, and stereomicroscopy and sequencing of the Internal Transcribed Spacers (ITS) for fungi. Most samples contained microbes between 105 and 107 cfu g−1 substrate. Actinobacteria belonging to the genus Streptomyces (17 samples/5 monuments) or Arthrobacter (12/3) and Pseudomonas (9/3) were frequently detected. Most streptomycetes were in terms of their 16S rRNA gene sequence most closely related to S. microflavus (10/3) or to the undescribed species S. “vulgaris” (8/3). Indoor and outdoor biofilms exhibited significant differences in their microbiota, as shown by both microscopy and isolation studies. Pigmented coccoid Arthrobacter species were typical for the outdoor samples, whereas Pseudomonas species were common in the indoor samples. Based on the low phylogenetic relationship to a known species (type strain), potential novel pigmented bacterial species belonging to the genera Arthrobacter, Brevundimonas, Cryseobacterium, Deinococcus and Dyadobacter were detected from the outdoor samples and to Pseudomonas from the indoor samples. Hyaline fungal species of Acremonium (10/4) mainly occurred in indoor samples, whereas pigmented species of Cladosporium (8/3), Penicillium (6/3) and Phialophora (6/2) were found outdoors. Using in situ microscopy diatom algae were also detected.",
keywords = "Historic monuments, biofilm, Actinobacteria, Streptomyces, Arthrobacter, Fungi, Cladosporium, Phialophora, Protective pigmentation",
author = "Maija-Liisa Suihko and Hanna-Leena Alakomi and Anna Gorbushina and Irene Fortune and J{\"u}rgen Marquardt and Maria Saarela",
year = "2007",
doi = "10.1016/j.syapm.2007.05.001",
language = "English",
volume = "30",
pages = "494--508",
journal = "Systematic and Applied Microbiology",
issn = "0723-2020",
publisher = "Urban und Fischer Verlag Jena",
number = "6",

}

Characterization of aerobic bacterial and fungal microbiota on surfaces of historic Scottish monuments. / Suihko, Maija-Liisa (Corresponding Author); Alakomi, Hanna-Leena; Gorbushina, Anna; Fortune, Irene; Marquardt, Jürgen; Saarela, Maria.

In: Systematic and Applied Microbiology, Vol. 30, No. 6, 2007, p. 494-508.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

TY - JOUR

T1 - Characterization of aerobic bacterial and fungal microbiota on surfaces of historic Scottish monuments

AU - Suihko, Maija-Liisa

AU - Alakomi, Hanna-Leena

AU - Gorbushina, Anna

AU - Fortune, Irene

AU - Marquardt, Jürgen

AU - Saarela, Maria

PY - 2007

Y1 - 2007

N2 - Twenty samples were taken from the inner or outer surfaces of stone monuments of six historic Scottish buildings and ruins. Biofilms developing on mineral substrates were analysed by in situ scanning electron microscopy and cultivation. Various methods were used to characterize the isolates including automated ribotyping, RAPD and sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene for bacteria, and stereomicroscopy and sequencing of the Internal Transcribed Spacers (ITS) for fungi. Most samples contained microbes between 105 and 107 cfu g−1 substrate. Actinobacteria belonging to the genus Streptomyces (17 samples/5 monuments) or Arthrobacter (12/3) and Pseudomonas (9/3) were frequently detected. Most streptomycetes were in terms of their 16S rRNA gene sequence most closely related to S. microflavus (10/3) or to the undescribed species S. “vulgaris” (8/3). Indoor and outdoor biofilms exhibited significant differences in their microbiota, as shown by both microscopy and isolation studies. Pigmented coccoid Arthrobacter species were typical for the outdoor samples, whereas Pseudomonas species were common in the indoor samples. Based on the low phylogenetic relationship to a known species (type strain), potential novel pigmented bacterial species belonging to the genera Arthrobacter, Brevundimonas, Cryseobacterium, Deinococcus and Dyadobacter were detected from the outdoor samples and to Pseudomonas from the indoor samples. Hyaline fungal species of Acremonium (10/4) mainly occurred in indoor samples, whereas pigmented species of Cladosporium (8/3), Penicillium (6/3) and Phialophora (6/2) were found outdoors. Using in situ microscopy diatom algae were also detected.

AB - Twenty samples were taken from the inner or outer surfaces of stone monuments of six historic Scottish buildings and ruins. Biofilms developing on mineral substrates were analysed by in situ scanning electron microscopy and cultivation. Various methods were used to characterize the isolates including automated ribotyping, RAPD and sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene for bacteria, and stereomicroscopy and sequencing of the Internal Transcribed Spacers (ITS) for fungi. Most samples contained microbes between 105 and 107 cfu g−1 substrate. Actinobacteria belonging to the genus Streptomyces (17 samples/5 monuments) or Arthrobacter (12/3) and Pseudomonas (9/3) were frequently detected. Most streptomycetes were in terms of their 16S rRNA gene sequence most closely related to S. microflavus (10/3) or to the undescribed species S. “vulgaris” (8/3). Indoor and outdoor biofilms exhibited significant differences in their microbiota, as shown by both microscopy and isolation studies. Pigmented coccoid Arthrobacter species were typical for the outdoor samples, whereas Pseudomonas species were common in the indoor samples. Based on the low phylogenetic relationship to a known species (type strain), potential novel pigmented bacterial species belonging to the genera Arthrobacter, Brevundimonas, Cryseobacterium, Deinococcus and Dyadobacter were detected from the outdoor samples and to Pseudomonas from the indoor samples. Hyaline fungal species of Acremonium (10/4) mainly occurred in indoor samples, whereas pigmented species of Cladosporium (8/3), Penicillium (6/3) and Phialophora (6/2) were found outdoors. Using in situ microscopy diatom algae were also detected.

KW - Historic monuments

KW - biofilm

KW - Actinobacteria

KW - Streptomyces

KW - Arthrobacter

KW - Fungi

KW - Cladosporium

KW - Phialophora

KW - Protective pigmentation

U2 - 10.1016/j.syapm.2007.05.001

DO - 10.1016/j.syapm.2007.05.001

M3 - Article

VL - 30

SP - 494

EP - 508

JO - Systematic and Applied Microbiology

JF - Systematic and Applied Microbiology

SN - 0723-2020

IS - 6

ER -