Characterization of Diaphanous-related formin FMNL2 in human tissues

M. Gardberg (Corresponding Author), K. Talvinen, K. Kaipio, Kristiina Iljin, C. Kampf, M. Uhlen, O. Carpén

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

20 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Background

Diaphanous-related formins govern actin-based processes involved in many cellular functions, such as cell movement and invasion. Possible connections to developmental processes and cellular changes associated with malignant phenotype make them interesting study targets. In spite of this, very little is known of the tissue distribution and cellular location of any mammalian formin. Here we have carried out a comprehensive analysis of the formin family member formin -like 2 (FMNL2) in human tissues.

Results

An FMNL2 antibody was raised and characterized. The affinity-purified FMNL2 antibody was validated by Western blotting, Northern blotting, a peptide competition assay and siRNA experiments. Bioinformatics-based mRNA profiling indicated that FMNL2 is widely expressed in human tissues. The highest mRNA levels were seen in central and peripheral nervous systems. Immunohistochemical analysis of 26 different human tissues showed that FMNL2 is widely expressed, in agreement with the mRNA profile. The widest expression was detected in the central nervous system, since both neurons and glial cells expressed FMNL2. Strong expression was also seen in many epithelia. However, the expression in different cell types was not ubiquitous. Many mesenchymal cell types showed weak immunoreactivity and cells lacking expression were seen in many tissues. The subcellular location of FMNL2 was cytoplasmic, and in some tissues a strong perinuclear dot was detected. In cultured cells FMNL2 showed mostly a cytoplasmic localization with perinuclear accumulation consistent with the Golgi apparatus. Furthermore, FMNL2 co-localized with F-actin to the tips of cellular protrusions in WM164 human melanoma cells. This finding is in line with FMNL2's proposed function in the formation of actin filaments in cellular protrusions, during amoeboid cellular migration.

Conclusion

FMNL2 is expressed in multiple human tissues, not only in the central nervous system. The expression is especially strong in gastrointestinal and mammary epithelia, lymphatic tissues, placenta, and in the reproductive tract. In cultured melanoma cells, FMNL2 co-localizes with F-actin dots at the tips of cellular protrusions.

Original languageEnglish
Article number55
Number of pages10
JournalBMC Cell Biology
Volume11
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2010
MoE publication typeA1 Journal article-refereed

Fingerprint

Cell Surface Extensions
Actins
Central Nervous System
Messenger RNA
Cultured Cells
Melanoma
Epithelium
Antibodies
Peripheral Nervous System
Golgi Apparatus
Lymphoid Tissue
Tissue Distribution
Computational Biology
Actin Cytoskeleton
Neuroglia
Northern Blotting
Placenta
Small Interfering RNA
Cell Movement
Breast

Cite this

Gardberg, M., Talvinen, K., Kaipio, K., Iljin, K., Kampf, C., Uhlen, M., & Carpén, O. (2010). Characterization of Diaphanous-related formin FMNL2 in human tissues. BMC Cell Biology, 11, [55]. https://doi.org/10.1186/1471-2121-11-55
Gardberg, M. ; Talvinen, K. ; Kaipio, K. ; Iljin, Kristiina ; Kampf, C. ; Uhlen, M. ; Carpén, O. / Characterization of Diaphanous-related formin FMNL2 in human tissues. In: BMC Cell Biology. 2010 ; Vol. 11.
@article{ab5eed21284441a1a260a7a89db2f414,
title = "Characterization of Diaphanous-related formin FMNL2 in human tissues",
abstract = "Background Diaphanous-related formins govern actin-based processes involved in many cellular functions, such as cell movement and invasion. Possible connections to developmental processes and cellular changes associated with malignant phenotype make them interesting study targets. In spite of this, very little is known of the tissue distribution and cellular location of any mammalian formin. Here we have carried out a comprehensive analysis of the formin family member formin -like 2 (FMNL2) in human tissues. Results An FMNL2 antibody was raised and characterized. The affinity-purified FMNL2 antibody was validated by Western blotting, Northern blotting, a peptide competition assay and siRNA experiments. Bioinformatics-based mRNA profiling indicated that FMNL2 is widely expressed in human tissues. The highest mRNA levels were seen in central and peripheral nervous systems. Immunohistochemical analysis of 26 different human tissues showed that FMNL2 is widely expressed, in agreement with the mRNA profile. The widest expression was detected in the central nervous system, since both neurons and glial cells expressed FMNL2. Strong expression was also seen in many epithelia. However, the expression in different cell types was not ubiquitous. Many mesenchymal cell types showed weak immunoreactivity and cells lacking expression were seen in many tissues. The subcellular location of FMNL2 was cytoplasmic, and in some tissues a strong perinuclear dot was detected. In cultured cells FMNL2 showed mostly a cytoplasmic localization with perinuclear accumulation consistent with the Golgi apparatus. Furthermore, FMNL2 co-localized with F-actin to the tips of cellular protrusions in WM164 human melanoma cells. This finding is in line with FMNL2's proposed function in the formation of actin filaments in cellular protrusions, during amoeboid cellular migration. Conclusion FMNL2 is expressed in multiple human tissues, not only in the central nervous system. The expression is especially strong in gastrointestinal and mammary epithelia, lymphatic tissues, placenta, and in the reproductive tract. In cultured melanoma cells, FMNL2 co-localizes with F-actin dots at the tips of cellular protrusions.",
author = "M. Gardberg and K. Talvinen and K. Kaipio and Kristiina Iljin and C. Kampf and M. Uhlen and O. Carp{\'e}n",
year = "2010",
doi = "10.1186/1471-2121-11-55",
language = "English",
volume = "11",
journal = "BMC Cell Biology",
issn = "1471-2121",

}

Gardberg, M, Talvinen, K, Kaipio, K, Iljin, K, Kampf, C, Uhlen, M & Carpén, O 2010, 'Characterization of Diaphanous-related formin FMNL2 in human tissues', BMC Cell Biology, vol. 11, 55. https://doi.org/10.1186/1471-2121-11-55

Characterization of Diaphanous-related formin FMNL2 in human tissues. / Gardberg, M. (Corresponding Author); Talvinen, K.; Kaipio, K.; Iljin, Kristiina; Kampf, C.; Uhlen, M.; Carpén, O.

In: BMC Cell Biology, Vol. 11, 55, 2010.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

TY - JOUR

T1 - Characterization of Diaphanous-related formin FMNL2 in human tissues

AU - Gardberg, M.

AU - Talvinen, K.

AU - Kaipio, K.

AU - Iljin, Kristiina

AU - Kampf, C.

AU - Uhlen, M.

AU - Carpén, O.

PY - 2010

Y1 - 2010

N2 - Background Diaphanous-related formins govern actin-based processes involved in many cellular functions, such as cell movement and invasion. Possible connections to developmental processes and cellular changes associated with malignant phenotype make them interesting study targets. In spite of this, very little is known of the tissue distribution and cellular location of any mammalian formin. Here we have carried out a comprehensive analysis of the formin family member formin -like 2 (FMNL2) in human tissues. Results An FMNL2 antibody was raised and characterized. The affinity-purified FMNL2 antibody was validated by Western blotting, Northern blotting, a peptide competition assay and siRNA experiments. Bioinformatics-based mRNA profiling indicated that FMNL2 is widely expressed in human tissues. The highest mRNA levels were seen in central and peripheral nervous systems. Immunohistochemical analysis of 26 different human tissues showed that FMNL2 is widely expressed, in agreement with the mRNA profile. The widest expression was detected in the central nervous system, since both neurons and glial cells expressed FMNL2. Strong expression was also seen in many epithelia. However, the expression in different cell types was not ubiquitous. Many mesenchymal cell types showed weak immunoreactivity and cells lacking expression were seen in many tissues. The subcellular location of FMNL2 was cytoplasmic, and in some tissues a strong perinuclear dot was detected. In cultured cells FMNL2 showed mostly a cytoplasmic localization with perinuclear accumulation consistent with the Golgi apparatus. Furthermore, FMNL2 co-localized with F-actin to the tips of cellular protrusions in WM164 human melanoma cells. This finding is in line with FMNL2's proposed function in the formation of actin filaments in cellular protrusions, during amoeboid cellular migration. Conclusion FMNL2 is expressed in multiple human tissues, not only in the central nervous system. The expression is especially strong in gastrointestinal and mammary epithelia, lymphatic tissues, placenta, and in the reproductive tract. In cultured melanoma cells, FMNL2 co-localizes with F-actin dots at the tips of cellular protrusions.

AB - Background Diaphanous-related formins govern actin-based processes involved in many cellular functions, such as cell movement and invasion. Possible connections to developmental processes and cellular changes associated with malignant phenotype make them interesting study targets. In spite of this, very little is known of the tissue distribution and cellular location of any mammalian formin. Here we have carried out a comprehensive analysis of the formin family member formin -like 2 (FMNL2) in human tissues. Results An FMNL2 antibody was raised and characterized. The affinity-purified FMNL2 antibody was validated by Western blotting, Northern blotting, a peptide competition assay and siRNA experiments. Bioinformatics-based mRNA profiling indicated that FMNL2 is widely expressed in human tissues. The highest mRNA levels were seen in central and peripheral nervous systems. Immunohistochemical analysis of 26 different human tissues showed that FMNL2 is widely expressed, in agreement with the mRNA profile. The widest expression was detected in the central nervous system, since both neurons and glial cells expressed FMNL2. Strong expression was also seen in many epithelia. However, the expression in different cell types was not ubiquitous. Many mesenchymal cell types showed weak immunoreactivity and cells lacking expression were seen in many tissues. The subcellular location of FMNL2 was cytoplasmic, and in some tissues a strong perinuclear dot was detected. In cultured cells FMNL2 showed mostly a cytoplasmic localization with perinuclear accumulation consistent with the Golgi apparatus. Furthermore, FMNL2 co-localized with F-actin to the tips of cellular protrusions in WM164 human melanoma cells. This finding is in line with FMNL2's proposed function in the formation of actin filaments in cellular protrusions, during amoeboid cellular migration. Conclusion FMNL2 is expressed in multiple human tissues, not only in the central nervous system. The expression is especially strong in gastrointestinal and mammary epithelia, lymphatic tissues, placenta, and in the reproductive tract. In cultured melanoma cells, FMNL2 co-localizes with F-actin dots at the tips of cellular protrusions.

U2 - 10.1186/1471-2121-11-55

DO - 10.1186/1471-2121-11-55

M3 - Article

VL - 11

JO - BMC Cell Biology

JF - BMC Cell Biology

SN - 1471-2121

M1 - 55

ER -