Characterization of etching procedure in preparation of CdTe solar cells

Juha Sarlund, Mikko Ritala (Corresponding Author), Markku Leskelä, Eija Siponmaa, Riitta Zilliacus

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

46 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

An etching procedure for forming a low resistance contact to polycrystalline CdTe thin films in CdS/CdTe solar cells was studied. The etching solution used was a mixture of HNO3, H3PO4 and H20. X-ray diffraction (XRD), secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) and electric measurements revealed that the etching results in a formation of crystalline tellurium on the film surface, thereby increasing substantially the conductivity of the surface layer. The total process was found to consist of three steps: (i) immediately after an immersion into the etching solution there was a certain induction period with no discernible changes, (ii) a subsequent reaction step during which poorly crystallized elemental tellurium was formed, gaseous byproducts liberated and the surface changed its colour, and (iii) after taking out of the etching solution the tellurium crystallized causing a strong decrease in the sheet resistance. In situ XRD and electric measurements were carried out to follow the third step. The chemical aspects of the three steps as well as their contributions to the reproducibility and control of the overall etching procedure have been considered.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)177-190
Number of pages14
JournalSolar Energy Materials and Solar Cells
Volume44
Issue number2
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 1996
MoE publication typeA1 Journal article-refereed

Fingerprint

Etching
Solar cells
Tellurium
Electric variables measurement
X ray diffraction
Sheet resistance
Contact resistance
Secondary ion mass spectrometry
Byproducts
Crystalline materials
Color
Thin films

Keywords

  • solar cells

Cite this

Sarlund, Juha ; Ritala, Mikko ; Leskelä, Markku ; Siponmaa, Eija ; Zilliacus, Riitta. / Characterization of etching procedure in preparation of CdTe solar cells. In: Solar Energy Materials and Solar Cells. 1996 ; Vol. 44, No. 2. pp. 177-190.
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abstract = "An etching procedure for forming a low resistance contact to polycrystalline CdTe thin films in CdS/CdTe solar cells was studied. The etching solution used was a mixture of HNO3, H3PO4 and H20. X-ray diffraction (XRD), secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) and electric measurements revealed that the etching results in a formation of crystalline tellurium on the film surface, thereby increasing substantially the conductivity of the surface layer. The total process was found to consist of three steps: (i) immediately after an immersion into the etching solution there was a certain induction period with no discernible changes, (ii) a subsequent reaction step during which poorly crystallized elemental tellurium was formed, gaseous byproducts liberated and the surface changed its colour, and (iii) after taking out of the etching solution the tellurium crystallized causing a strong decrease in the sheet resistance. In situ XRD and electric measurements were carried out to follow the third step. The chemical aspects of the three steps as well as their contributions to the reproducibility and control of the overall etching procedure have been considered.",
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Sarlund, J, Ritala, M, Leskelä, M, Siponmaa, E & Zilliacus, R 1996, 'Characterization of etching procedure in preparation of CdTe solar cells', Solar Energy Materials and Solar Cells, vol. 44, no. 2, pp. 177-190. https://doi.org/10.1016/0927-0248(96)00053-0

Characterization of etching procedure in preparation of CdTe solar cells. / Sarlund, Juha; Ritala, Mikko (Corresponding Author); Leskelä, Markku; Siponmaa, Eija; Zilliacus, Riitta.

In: Solar Energy Materials and Solar Cells, Vol. 44, No. 2, 1996, p. 177-190.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

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AU - Sarlund, Juha

AU - Ritala, Mikko

AU - Leskelä, Markku

AU - Siponmaa, Eija

AU - Zilliacus, Riitta

PY - 1996

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N2 - An etching procedure for forming a low resistance contact to polycrystalline CdTe thin films in CdS/CdTe solar cells was studied. The etching solution used was a mixture of HNO3, H3PO4 and H20. X-ray diffraction (XRD), secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) and electric measurements revealed that the etching results in a formation of crystalline tellurium on the film surface, thereby increasing substantially the conductivity of the surface layer. The total process was found to consist of three steps: (i) immediately after an immersion into the etching solution there was a certain induction period with no discernible changes, (ii) a subsequent reaction step during which poorly crystallized elemental tellurium was formed, gaseous byproducts liberated and the surface changed its colour, and (iii) after taking out of the etching solution the tellurium crystallized causing a strong decrease in the sheet resistance. In situ XRD and electric measurements were carried out to follow the third step. The chemical aspects of the three steps as well as their contributions to the reproducibility and control of the overall etching procedure have been considered.

AB - An etching procedure for forming a low resistance contact to polycrystalline CdTe thin films in CdS/CdTe solar cells was studied. The etching solution used was a mixture of HNO3, H3PO4 and H20. X-ray diffraction (XRD), secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) and electric measurements revealed that the etching results in a formation of crystalline tellurium on the film surface, thereby increasing substantially the conductivity of the surface layer. The total process was found to consist of three steps: (i) immediately after an immersion into the etching solution there was a certain induction period with no discernible changes, (ii) a subsequent reaction step during which poorly crystallized elemental tellurium was formed, gaseous byproducts liberated and the surface changed its colour, and (iii) after taking out of the etching solution the tellurium crystallized causing a strong decrease in the sheet resistance. In situ XRD and electric measurements were carried out to follow the third step. The chemical aspects of the three steps as well as their contributions to the reproducibility and control of the overall etching procedure have been considered.

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