Chemical composition and mass size distribution of fine particulate matter emitted by a small masonry heater

Anna K. Frey, Jarkko Tissari, Karri M. Saarnio, Hilkka J. Timonen, Outi Tolonen-Kivimäki, Minna A. Aurela, Sanna K. Saarikoski, Ulla Makkonen, Kati Hytönen, Jorma Jokiniemi, Raimo O. Salonen, Risto E. J. Hillamo

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

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Abstract

Residential wood combustion is a significant particulate emission source in many European countries. Especially for fine particle emissions in wood combustions, the lacking knowledge of emission factors (F-E) makes assessment of their contribution to ambient concentrations difficult. One reason for the discrepancy between modeled and measured contributions is many variables involved in combustion process. In this study, the fine particulate matter (PM) emissions coming from batch combustion of birch wood in a small masonry heater were investigated. The experiments were carried out in the specified conditions (normal and smouldering combustion, NC and SC, respectively). To enable various chemical analytical techniques, two sampling combinations for PM2.5 (particle diameter < 2.5 mu m), and size-segregated sampling were used. The samples were analyzed for gravimetric mass, major ions, monosaccharide anhydrides (MA, including levoglucosan, galactosan and mannosan), trace elements, elemental carbon (EC) and water-insoluble and -soluble particulate organic matter (WISPOM and WSPOM, respectively). F-E of PM2.5 based on gravimetric mass was three times higher for SC than for NC. Particulate organic matter (POM = 1.6 x OC) accounted for approximately 30% and 70% of F-E of PM2.5 in NC and SC, respectively. The corresponding values for EC were 32% and 25%. About 30% of the OC was water-soluble. Ions constituted about 20% of the F-E of PM2.5 in NC but only a few percents in SC. Potassium comprised around 60% of the analyzed ions. The fraction of trace elements consisting 94% of Zn was only about 1% of the total PM2.5 emissions. This study showed strong influence of combustion practice on emissions of the major chemical components from the small-scale wood combustion.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)225-271
JournalBoreal Environment Research
Volume14
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - 2009
MoE publication typeA1 Journal article-refereed

Fingerprint

heaters
Particulate Matter
masonry
combustion
particulate matter
particulates
chemical composition
particulate emissions
Trace Elements
Ions
Chemical analysis
Wood
Carbon
Betula
ions
particulate organic matter
Water
Monosaccharides
Anhydrides
Trace elements

Keywords

  • fine particles
  • wood combustion
  • particle emissions
  • residential buildings
  • residential combustion

Cite this

Frey, A. K., Tissari, J., Saarnio, K. M., Timonen, H. J., Tolonen-Kivimäki, O., Aurela, M. A., ... Hillamo, R. E. J. (2009). Chemical composition and mass size distribution of fine particulate matter emitted by a small masonry heater. Boreal Environment Research, 14(2), 225-271.
Frey, Anna K. ; Tissari, Jarkko ; Saarnio, Karri M. ; Timonen, Hilkka J. ; Tolonen-Kivimäki, Outi ; Aurela, Minna A. ; Saarikoski, Sanna K. ; Makkonen, Ulla ; Hytönen, Kati ; Jokiniemi, Jorma ; Salonen, Raimo O. ; Hillamo, Risto E. J. / Chemical composition and mass size distribution of fine particulate matter emitted by a small masonry heater. In: Boreal Environment Research. 2009 ; Vol. 14, No. 2. pp. 225-271.
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abstract = "Residential wood combustion is a significant particulate emission source in many European countries. Especially for fine particle emissions in wood combustions, the lacking knowledge of emission factors (F-E) makes assessment of their contribution to ambient concentrations difficult. One reason for the discrepancy between modeled and measured contributions is many variables involved in combustion process. In this study, the fine particulate matter (PM) emissions coming from batch combustion of birch wood in a small masonry heater were investigated. The experiments were carried out in the specified conditions (normal and smouldering combustion, NC and SC, respectively). To enable various chemical analytical techniques, two sampling combinations for PM2.5 (particle diameter < 2.5 mu m), and size-segregated sampling were used. The samples were analyzed for gravimetric mass, major ions, monosaccharide anhydrides (MA, including levoglucosan, galactosan and mannosan), trace elements, elemental carbon (EC) and water-insoluble and -soluble particulate organic matter (WISPOM and WSPOM, respectively). F-E of PM2.5 based on gravimetric mass was three times higher for SC than for NC. Particulate organic matter (POM = 1.6 x OC) accounted for approximately 30{\%} and 70{\%} of F-E of PM2.5 in NC and SC, respectively. The corresponding values for EC were 32{\%} and 25{\%}. About 30{\%} of the OC was water-soluble. Ions constituted about 20{\%} of the F-E of PM2.5 in NC but only a few percents in SC. Potassium comprised around 60{\%} of the analyzed ions. The fraction of trace elements consisting 94{\%} of Zn was only about 1{\%} of the total PM2.5 emissions. This study showed strong influence of combustion practice on emissions of the major chemical components from the small-scale wood combustion.",
keywords = "fine particles, wood combustion, particle emissions, residential buildings, residential combustion",
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Frey, AK, Tissari, J, Saarnio, KM, Timonen, HJ, Tolonen-Kivimäki, O, Aurela, MA, Saarikoski, SK, Makkonen, U, Hytönen, K, Jokiniemi, J, Salonen, RO & Hillamo, REJ 2009, 'Chemical composition and mass size distribution of fine particulate matter emitted by a small masonry heater', Boreal Environment Research, vol. 14, no. 2, pp. 225-271.

Chemical composition and mass size distribution of fine particulate matter emitted by a small masonry heater. / Frey, Anna K.; Tissari, Jarkko; Saarnio, Karri M.; Timonen, Hilkka J.; Tolonen-Kivimäki, Outi; Aurela, Minna A.; Saarikoski, Sanna K.; Makkonen, Ulla; Hytönen, Kati; Jokiniemi, Jorma; Salonen, Raimo O.; Hillamo, Risto E. J.

In: Boreal Environment Research, Vol. 14, No. 2, 2009, p. 225-271.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

TY - JOUR

T1 - Chemical composition and mass size distribution of fine particulate matter emitted by a small masonry heater

AU - Frey, Anna K.

AU - Tissari, Jarkko

AU - Saarnio, Karri M.

AU - Timonen, Hilkka J.

AU - Tolonen-Kivimäki, Outi

AU - Aurela, Minna A.

AU - Saarikoski, Sanna K.

AU - Makkonen, Ulla

AU - Hytönen, Kati

AU - Jokiniemi, Jorma

AU - Salonen, Raimo O.

AU - Hillamo, Risto E. J.

PY - 2009

Y1 - 2009

N2 - Residential wood combustion is a significant particulate emission source in many European countries. Especially for fine particle emissions in wood combustions, the lacking knowledge of emission factors (F-E) makes assessment of their contribution to ambient concentrations difficult. One reason for the discrepancy between modeled and measured contributions is many variables involved in combustion process. In this study, the fine particulate matter (PM) emissions coming from batch combustion of birch wood in a small masonry heater were investigated. The experiments were carried out in the specified conditions (normal and smouldering combustion, NC and SC, respectively). To enable various chemical analytical techniques, two sampling combinations for PM2.5 (particle diameter < 2.5 mu m), and size-segregated sampling were used. The samples were analyzed for gravimetric mass, major ions, monosaccharide anhydrides (MA, including levoglucosan, galactosan and mannosan), trace elements, elemental carbon (EC) and water-insoluble and -soluble particulate organic matter (WISPOM and WSPOM, respectively). F-E of PM2.5 based on gravimetric mass was three times higher for SC than for NC. Particulate organic matter (POM = 1.6 x OC) accounted for approximately 30% and 70% of F-E of PM2.5 in NC and SC, respectively. The corresponding values for EC were 32% and 25%. About 30% of the OC was water-soluble. Ions constituted about 20% of the F-E of PM2.5 in NC but only a few percents in SC. Potassium comprised around 60% of the analyzed ions. The fraction of trace elements consisting 94% of Zn was only about 1% of the total PM2.5 emissions. This study showed strong influence of combustion practice on emissions of the major chemical components from the small-scale wood combustion.

AB - Residential wood combustion is a significant particulate emission source in many European countries. Especially for fine particle emissions in wood combustions, the lacking knowledge of emission factors (F-E) makes assessment of their contribution to ambient concentrations difficult. One reason for the discrepancy between modeled and measured contributions is many variables involved in combustion process. In this study, the fine particulate matter (PM) emissions coming from batch combustion of birch wood in a small masonry heater were investigated. The experiments were carried out in the specified conditions (normal and smouldering combustion, NC and SC, respectively). To enable various chemical analytical techniques, two sampling combinations for PM2.5 (particle diameter < 2.5 mu m), and size-segregated sampling were used. The samples were analyzed for gravimetric mass, major ions, monosaccharide anhydrides (MA, including levoglucosan, galactosan and mannosan), trace elements, elemental carbon (EC) and water-insoluble and -soluble particulate organic matter (WISPOM and WSPOM, respectively). F-E of PM2.5 based on gravimetric mass was three times higher for SC than for NC. Particulate organic matter (POM = 1.6 x OC) accounted for approximately 30% and 70% of F-E of PM2.5 in NC and SC, respectively. The corresponding values for EC were 32% and 25%. About 30% of the OC was water-soluble. Ions constituted about 20% of the F-E of PM2.5 in NC but only a few percents in SC. Potassium comprised around 60% of the analyzed ions. The fraction of trace elements consisting 94% of Zn was only about 1% of the total PM2.5 emissions. This study showed strong influence of combustion practice on emissions of the major chemical components from the small-scale wood combustion.

KW - fine particles

KW - wood combustion

KW - particle emissions

KW - residential buildings

KW - residential combustion

M3 - Article

VL - 14

SP - 225

EP - 271

JO - Boreal Environment Research

JF - Boreal Environment Research

SN - 1239-6095

IS - 2

ER -

Frey AK, Tissari J, Saarnio KM, Timonen HJ, Tolonen-Kivimäki O, Aurela MA et al. Chemical composition and mass size distribution of fine particulate matter emitted by a small masonry heater. Boreal Environment Research. 2009;14(2):225-271.