Classification of used wood in European solid biofuel standard: Fuel specification and classes (EN 14961-1)

Eija Alakangas, Camilla Wiik, Josef Rautbauer, Lukas Sulzbacher, Günter Baumbach, Daniel Kilgus, Dagnija Blumberga, Julija Guscha, Panagiotis Grammelis, Anastasia Malliopoulou

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference article in proceedingsScientificpeer-review

Abstract

The work of the BioNormII on Fuel specification and classes (Task IV) has very valuable in upgrading of EN 14961 to European standard. Testing of the draft versions of EN 14961 in companies and collecting feedback from associations has provided useful information from practise in setting threshold values for property tables in Part 1 of EN 14961 and proposal for classification of product standards. The Task IV has also made a comprehensive study of current classification of used wood (waste wood) including implementation of European legislations and standards. The study included also analysis of different used wood sortiments and their composition especially con­ taminants. It is necessary to define the impact of possible contaminants on the energy utilisation of used wood. This is helpful for categorisation, as well as for identification and characterisation of the contaminants. From an environ­ mental point of view, the risks of used wood combustion are air pollution from flue gases or leaching of hazardous substances from ash after disposal. Operation failure, normally appearing as boiler deposit formation or corrosion, is a technical issue that also needs to be considered. Mechanically, problems in fuel conveyors may occur due to glass, fittings, and various fastening systems that are attached to “used wood” products. Another important aspect to be ac­ counted for is issues related to occupational health. All these aspects were surveyed during the study. The project also made a proposal for overall categorisation of chemically treated industrial wood residues and used wood. In this clas­ sification used wood is divided in 4 categories A, B, C and D. Categories A and B are classified under EN 14961-1– Solid biofuel standard and class C under EN 15359–Solid recovered fuel. Fuels falling into category C should be in­ cinerated according Waste Incineration Directive (2000/76/EC). Class D wood is treated by wood preservatives and is hazardous waste.
Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationProceedings of the 18th EBCE
PublisherETA-Florence Renewable Energies
Pages1932-1939
ISBN (Print)978-88-89407-56-1
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2010
MoE publication typeA4 Article in a conference publication
Event18th European Biomass Conference and Exhibition - Lyon , France
Duration: 3 May 20107 May 2010

Conference

Conference18th European Biomass Conference and Exhibition
CountryFrance
CityLyon
Period3/05/107/05/10

Fingerprint

Biofuels
Wood
Specifications
Ashes
Boiler deposits
Impurities
Wood wastes
Wood products
Conveyors
Waste incineration
Air pollution
Flue gases
Waste disposal
Leaching
Energy utilization
Health
Corrosion
Feedback
Glass
Testing

Cite this

Alakangas, E., Wiik, C., Rautbauer, J., Sulzbacher, L., Baumbach, G., Kilgus, D., ... Malliopoulou, A. (2010). Classification of used wood in European solid biofuel standard: Fuel specification and classes (EN 14961-1). In Proceedings of the 18th EBCE (pp. 1932-1939). ETA-Florence Renewable Energies. https://doi.org/10.5071/18thEUBCE2010-VP4.1.2
Alakangas, Eija ; Wiik, Camilla ; Rautbauer, Josef ; Sulzbacher, Lukas ; Baumbach, Günter ; Kilgus, Daniel ; Blumberga, Dagnija ; Guscha, Julija ; Grammelis, Panagiotis ; Malliopoulou, Anastasia. / Classification of used wood in European solid biofuel standard: Fuel specification and classes (EN 14961-1). Proceedings of the 18th EBCE. ETA-Florence Renewable Energies, 2010. pp. 1932-1939
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abstract = "The work of the BioNormII on Fuel specification and classes (Task IV) has very valuable in upgrading of EN 14961 to European standard. Testing of the draft versions of EN 14961 in companies and collecting feedback from associations has provided useful information from practise in setting threshold values for property tables in Part 1 of EN 14961 and proposal for classification of product standards. The Task IV has also made a comprehensive study of current classification of used wood (waste wood) including implementation of European legislations and standards. The study included also analysis of different used wood sortiments and their composition especially con­ taminants. It is necessary to define the impact of possible contaminants on the energy utilisation of used wood. This is helpful for categorisation, as well as for identification and characterisation of the contaminants. From an environ­ mental point of view, the risks of used wood combustion are air pollution from flue gases or leaching of hazardous substances from ash after disposal. Operation failure, normally appearing as boiler deposit formation or corrosion, is a technical issue that also needs to be considered. Mechanically, problems in fuel conveyors may occur due to glass, fittings, and various fastening systems that are attached to “used wood” products. Another important aspect to be ac­ counted for is issues related to occupational health. All these aspects were surveyed during the study. The project also made a proposal for overall categorisation of chemically treated industrial wood residues and used wood. In this clas­ sification used wood is divided in 4 categories A, B, C and D. Categories A and B are classified under EN 14961-1– Solid biofuel standard and class C under EN 15359–Solid recovered fuel. Fuels falling into category C should be in­ cinerated according Waste Incineration Directive (2000/76/EC). Class D wood is treated by wood preservatives and is hazardous waste.",
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Alakangas, E, Wiik, C, Rautbauer, J, Sulzbacher, L, Baumbach, G, Kilgus, D, Blumberga, D, Guscha, J, Grammelis, P & Malliopoulou, A 2010, Classification of used wood in European solid biofuel standard: Fuel specification and classes (EN 14961-1). in Proceedings of the 18th EBCE. ETA-Florence Renewable Energies, pp. 1932-1939, 18th European Biomass Conference and Exhibition, Lyon , France, 3/05/10. https://doi.org/10.5071/18thEUBCE2010-VP4.1.2

Classification of used wood in European solid biofuel standard: Fuel specification and classes (EN 14961-1). / Alakangas, Eija; Wiik, Camilla; Rautbauer, Josef; Sulzbacher, Lukas; Baumbach, Günter; Kilgus, Daniel; Blumberga, Dagnija; Guscha, Julija; Grammelis, Panagiotis; Malliopoulou, Anastasia.

Proceedings of the 18th EBCE. ETA-Florence Renewable Energies, 2010. p. 1932-1939.

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference article in proceedingsScientificpeer-review

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AU - Alakangas, Eija

AU - Wiik, Camilla

AU - Rautbauer, Josef

AU - Sulzbacher, Lukas

AU - Baumbach, Günter

AU - Kilgus, Daniel

AU - Blumberga, Dagnija

AU - Guscha, Julija

AU - Grammelis, Panagiotis

AU - Malliopoulou, Anastasia

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M3 - Conference article in proceedings

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EP - 1939

BT - Proceedings of the 18th EBCE

PB - ETA-Florence Renewable Energies

ER -

Alakangas E, Wiik C, Rautbauer J, Sulzbacher L, Baumbach G, Kilgus D et al. Classification of used wood in European solid biofuel standard: Fuel specification and classes (EN 14961-1). In Proceedings of the 18th EBCE. ETA-Florence Renewable Energies. 2010. p. 1932-1939 https://doi.org/10.5071/18thEUBCE2010-VP4.1.2